Former C.C.C. Member Speaks Out

John Shepard, now a resident of the Lake Viking Health Care Center, still remembers working in the C.C.C. camps during the Great Depression. These workers played a large part in putting food on the family’s table in that era. In the next few short paragraphs, I’d like to share what John shared with me about his C.C.C. camp.

John Shepard, now a resident of the Lake Viking Health Care Center, still remembers working in the C.C.C. camps during the Great Depression. These workers played a large part in putting food on the family’s table in that era. In the next few short paragraphs, I’d like to share what John shared with me about his C.C.C. camp.

"If the parents had a job, the boys could still work, but only one boy could work at one time. For example, my brother Fred was also a C.C.C. worker, but he could not be a member at the same time that I was."

"I spent some time in Minnesota in one of the camps. We had to sleep in a small, wooden barracks which would hold approximately seven to 10 boys. The meals were good. We were paid $38 dollars per month plus our room and board. We couldn’t be married, nor could we have a car. If we were caught with one, we were "booted" out of the camp."

"A few of the things we did were to build dams across ditches, cut wood for school houses, and plant locust trees."

These C.C.C. camps played a large part in supporting their families in these hard and difficult times. Let’s not forget people like John Shepard when we see him in the nursing home and let’s give him a smile and a thank you.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

The Great Depression Bites the Rural Schools

In the thirties, many one room schools were located in the rural areas. Their attendance would run as high as 35 or 40 in some districts and as low as four or five in other districts.

In the thirties, many one room schools were located in the rural areas. Their attendance would run as high as 35 or 40 in some districts and as low as four or five in other districts.

The rural schools often offered their grades out of the usual order of first to eighth grade. For example, in the 71 rural schools in Daviess County, 75 students would graduate from the eighth grade. The children who finished the grades in the spring of 1932, had their eighth grade work the previous 30-31 school year; now they were taking their seventh grade work in 1931-32. In short, one could say the eighth grade work is given to students every other year.

Previously, rural students who entered high school in the small towns were charged a tuition fee which was hard for some parents to pay. In 1931, the Gray law was passed which allowed all students who lived in Missouri to attend any high school in the state the following year and the state would pay the full tuition charge.

By 1933, many rural schools were undergoing financial hardships. Many called off Rural School Days due to the cost of the exhibits. Graduation exercises were canceled for the eighth grade students; instead, they were mailed their diplomas. Based on a 61 county survey, Charles A. Lee, State Superintendent of Schools, reported that one-fourth of the rural schools would end their school year with a deficit. His prediction came true; of these 61 counties, 950 districts ended with deficits. Due to the money deficiency and so many teachers seeking employment, he urged schools to cull and to hire only the best teachers.

Times grew worse. Teachers needed employment and did everything possible to keep jobs and to keep their schools from closing. Mr. Lee said:

"In the 61 counties reporting, 412 rural teachers are donating one month’s salary to keep the schools open this year for the full eight months, 215 teachers are donating two months salary, 53 are donating three months, six are donating four months, and one is donating more than four month’s salary."

In spite of teacher’s efforts to keep their jobs, 64 schools closed short of eight months; 39 of the schools closed one month short; 17 two months; six three months; and two were closing four months under the normal school year of eight months.

Donation of teacher’ salaries, fuel, free board for teachers, and drastic expense and salary reductions had been the means of keeping the schools open. Plans for the next year included further salary and expense reductions, increased tax levies, solicitations of private contributions, and some districts expected to hire teachers for the amount of funds available.

Lee’s concluding remarks state, "Unless something is done, our schools will be closed to thousands of children next year. Our only hope is for a larger state contribution."

Researched by Wilbur Bush

Feed and Seed Loans Become Available

In March, 1931, both feed and seed loans became available to help needy farmers in Clinton, Caldwell and Daviess Counties. Some of the regulations for the Federal Seed Loans were:

In March, 1931, both feed and seed loans became available to help needy farmers in Clinton, Caldwell and Daviess Counties. Some of the regulations for the Federal Seed Loans were:

1. Loans are made for seed, fertilizer, and feed for work stock, or fuel and oil for tractors.

2. Loans are intended for farmers who cannot get commercial credit and not for the man who can get credit at his local bank.

3. Applications must be made in person at the office of the county extension agent in the courthouse at Plattsburg.

4. Loans to any one individual may not exceed $600, and are due and payable Nov. 30, 1931, or sooner if the crops covered are sold before that time.

5. The note bears an interest rate of 5% per annum.

6. The loan must be secured by an absolute first mortgage on all crops grown by the applicant in 1931. In order for a tenant to obtain a loan from this fund, his landlord must sign the waver which is part of the mortgage form.

7. A complete legal description of all land owned or rented by the applicant is required. The tax receipt usually contains this description.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

Feed and Seed Loans

In 1932, and due to the farmer’s money situation, many farmers didn’t have money to plant crops and repair machinery. Once again, the government provided aid for many farmers who had farmed in 1931. There were many government restrictions in regard to obtaining a loan, and in many cases those farmers who needed the money were unable to borrow it.

In 1932, and due to the farmer’s money situation, many farmers didn’t have money to plant crops and repair machinery. Once again, the government provided aid for many farmers who had farmed in 1931. There were many government restrictions in regard to obtaining a loan, and in many cases those farmers who needed the money were unable to borrow it.

Under the new program, applicants were still required to give a first lien on crops, which required the tenant to secure a waiver from the party from whom he was renting.

Not more than an average of $1 per acre of the loan could be used for repairs and miscellaneous expenses of crop production other than seed, fertilizer, feed for work stock, and fuel and oil for tractors. The farmers had to agree to use the seed and methods approved by the Department of Agriculture. They had to plant a garden for home use and a sufficient acreage of feed crops to supply feed for their livestock.

Loans could not be made:

1. to an applicant who had any other means of income other than farming

2. to applicants who didn’t operate a farm in 1931

3. to purchase machinery or livestock

4. to pay taxes, debt, or interest

5. for feeding of livestock other than work stock used in the production of the crop

6. for a total acreage of crops in excess of the average planted by the borrower in 1930 and 1931.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

Easier vs More Jobs for Unemployed

Modern machines weren’t always used to make things easier in the Depression days. In August, 1931, the governor of Missouri at that time, Governor Caulfield, said Missouri would do everything possible to relieve the unemployment crisis. Whenever it was possible to use manpower, machine operated equipment would set idle. The program undoubtedly affected workers in Daviess County. Among the things suggested to achieve this goal were:

Modern machines weren’t always used to make things easier in the Depression days. In August, 1931, the governor of Missouri at that time, Governor Caulfield, said Missouri would do everything possible to relieve the unemployment crisis. Whenever it was possible to use manpower, machine operated equipment would set idle. The program undoubtedly affected workers in Daviess County. Among the things suggested to achieve this goal were:

1. The replacing of old bridges over streams where old-type, narrow bridges were being used.

2. The use of manual labor in changing the channels of streams to protect bridges, and the construction of new bridges that were scheduled to be built in the next few years.

3. The bridge paint crews were to replace spray guns with brushes.

4. The mowing of weeds on right of ways by team instead of using power equipment.

5. The possible use of manual labor and teams on all contracts calling for the moving of less than 10,000 yards of dirt.

6. The grubbing and cleaning on all available right of ways to be done by hand.

7. The using of hand or team labor to widen curves on roads built on the old standards.

8. The building of culverts on all roads where the right of way had been obtained, as this type of work was not affected by winter conditions.

9. The completion of the grading of all sections then unapproved on the centennial system as early as possible in 1933.

10. The stock piling of materials to be used in the next two or three years, and requiring the operators to use hand labor in quarrying the material.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

Notes over 1930-1940

FACTS about this decade. Population: 123,188,000 in 48 states Life Expectancy: Male, 58.1; Female, 61.6 Average salary: $1,368 Unemployment rises to 25% Huey Long propses a guaranteed annual income of $2,500 Car Sales: 2,787,400 Food Prices: Milk, 14 cents a qt.; Bread, 9 cents a loaf; Round Steak, 42 cents a pound Lynchings: 21

FACTS about this decade. Population: 123,188,000 in 48 states Life Expectancy: Male, 58.1; Female, 61.6 Average salary: $1,368 Unemployment rises to 25% Huey Long propses a guaranteed annual income of $2,500 Car Sales: 2,787,400 Food Prices: Milk, 14 cents a qt.; Bread, 9 cents a loaf; Round Steak, 42 cents a pound Lynchings: 21

Kingwood College Library

American Cultural History

1930 – 1939

By the 1930s money was scarce because of the depression, so people did what they could to make their lives happy. Movies were hot, parlor games and board games were popular. People gathered around radios to listen to the Yankees. Young people danced to the big bands. Franklin Roosevelt influenced Americans with his Fireside Chats. The golden age of the mystery novel continued as people escaped into books, reading writers like Agatha Christie, Dashielle Hammett, and Raymond Chandler

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n the Great Depression the American dream had become a nightmare. What was once the land of opportunity was now the land of desperation. What was once the land of hope and optimism had become the land of despair.The American people were questioning all the maxims on which they had based their lives – democracy, capitalism, individualism. The best hope for a better life was California. Many Dust Bowl farmers packed their families into cars, tied their few possessions on the back, and sought work in the agricultural fields or cities of the West – their role as independent land owners gone forever. Between 1929 and 1932 the income of the average American family was reduced by 40%, from $2,300 to $1,500. Instead of advancement, survival became the keyword. Institutions, attitudes, lifestyles changed in this decade but democracy prevailed. Democracies such as Germany and Italy fell to dictatorships, but the United States and its constitution survived.

Economics dominated politics in the 1930’s. The decade began with shanty towns called Hoovervilles, named after a president who felt that relief should be left to the private sector, and ended with an alphabet soup of federal programs funded by the national government and an assortment of commissions set up to regulate Wall Street, the banking industry, and other business enterprises. The Social Security Act of 1935 set up a program to ensure an income for the elderly. The Wagner Act of 1935 gave workers the legal right to unionize. John L. Lewis founded the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and conditions for blue-collar workers improved. Joseph P. Kennedy, a Wall Street insider, was appointed Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commissions.

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he 1930’s were a perilous time for public education. With cash money in short supply parents were unable to provide their children with the necessary clothes, supplies, and textbooks (which were not furnished in some states) to attend school. Taxes, especially in rural areas, went unpaid. With the loss of revenue, school boards were forced to try numerous strategies to keep their districts operating. School terms were shortened. Teachers’ salaries were cut. One new teacher was paid $40 a month for a five month school year – and was very glad for the job! When a rural county in Arkansas was forced to charge tuition one year in order to keep the schools open, some children were forced to drop out for that year. One farmer was able to barter wood to fuel the classrooms’ potbellied stoves for his four children’s tuition, thus enabling them to continue their education.

The famous Dick and Jane books that taught millions of children to read were first published in 1931. These primers introduced the students to reading with only one new word per page and a limited vocabulary per book. All who learned to read with these books still recall the "Look. See Dick. See Dick run."

FADS & FASHION

With the reduction of spendable income, people had to look to inexpensive leisure pursuits. President Roosevelt helped make stamp collecting a popular hobby. Parlor games and board games became the rage. In 1935 Parker Brothers introduced the game of Monopoly and 20 thousand sets were sold in one week. Gambling increased as people sought any means to add to their income. Between 1930 and 1939 horse racing became legal in 15 more states bringing the total to 21. Interest in spectator sports such as baseball grew. Stars like Lou Gehrig and Joe DiMaggio drew fans into the stadium, and those who could not attend the games gathered around their radios to listen to the play-by-play. The 1932 Winter Olympics, held at Lake Placid, New York, renewed interest in winter sports. The Civilian Conservation Corps, a New Deal work project for youths, built ski runs and jumps on public land as well as recreational facilities in the national parks

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aris fashions became too expensive for all but the very rich, and American designerscame into their own. Hollywood movie stars such as Bette Davis and Greta Garbo set fashion trends in dresses designed by Adrian and Muriel King and hats designed by Lily Dache. Clothes had to last a long time so styles did not change every season. The simple print dress with a waist line and longer hem length replaced the flapper attire of the 1920’s.

The use of the zipper became wide spread for the first time because it was less expensive than the buttons and closures previously used. Another innovation of the 30’s was different hem lengths for different times of the day – mid calf for day wear, long for the evening. Men’s pants were wide and high waisted. Vest sweaters were an alternative to the traditional matching vest of the three piece suit. Hats were mandatory for the well dressed male

The New York’s World Fair of 1939 – true to its theme of "The World of Tomorrow" – gave its estimated 25.8 million visitors a glimpse of the future. The fairgoers marveled at the flickering images of a TV set and were amazed at the General Motors exhibit of a seven-lane cross-country highway system. Many of the innovations demonstrated did not become a part of every day life until after World War II, but there was a peak at the technology to come. Medical advances in the thirties included a new and safer way to do blood transfusions. An advance that was to save many a soldier’s life in the upcoming war. In 1937 Chicago’s Cook County Hospital opened the first blood bank that stored blood given by live donors. This, with improved anesthesia, made the chances of surviving major surgery on vital organs much greater.

Pure scientific research suffered from the lack of funding. Nevertheless, in physics ground breaking experiments in atom smashing were being conducted at such institutions as Columbia University and the California Institute of Technology. Albert Einsteinimmigrated to the United States in 1933 and became a professor at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton University. From here in 1939 he wrote his famous letter to President Rooseveltrecommending the development of the atomic bomb. In the field of astronomy the ninth major planet, Pluto, was discovered in 1930.

Industrial research led to better refrigeration for foods, a variety of products made from synthetic materials such as plexiglass, nylon, and cellophane, and improved manufacturing techniques such as polymerization, which increased production of gasoline by nine million gallons a year. In 1938 American physicist Chester F. Carlson made the first copy by an electrostatic process called xerography.

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he theater flourished in this fourth decade of the twentieth century. In addition to musicals, Broadway marques lit up with play titles like Green Pastures by Marc Connelly, The Man Who Came to Dinner by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, The Children’s Hour by Lillian Hellman, Winterset by Maxwell Anderson, Abe Lincoln in Illinois by Robert Sherwood, and Waiting for Lefty by Clifford Odets. In 1936 the foremost American dramatist Eugene O’Neill won the Nobel prize for literature for such works as Anna Christie and Mourning Becomes Electra.

 

Hollywood turned out movie after movie to entertain its Depression audience and the 30’s are often referred to as Hollywood’s "Golden Age". Movie goers wanted mainly escapist fare that let them forget their everyday troubles for a few hours. They swooned over such matinee idols as Clark Gable, Bette Davis, Greta Garbo, and Errol Flynn. They laughed at the likes of W. C. Fields, Bob Hope, and the Marx Brothers. America fell in love with the little curly headed moppet Shirley Temple and flocked to see her tap dance and sing to the song "The Good Ship Lollipop". Busby Berkeley’s elaborate dance numbers delighted many a fan. Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers tap and ballroom dancing across the screen enthralled the audience. Notable writers like William Faulkner and F. Scott Fitzgerald penned screneplays. Not all movies were fantasy and lightness. The picture version of John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath brought to film the story of the Joan family and its migration from the Dust Bowl of Oklanhoma to the agricultural fields of California. One of the top money makers of all time Gone With the Wind debuted in Atlanta, Georgia in 1939. Walt Disney produced the first full-length animated movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937.

 

 

Radio reached its zenith of popularity in this decade.By 1939 about 80 percent of the population owned radio sets. Americans loved to laugh at the antics of such comedians as Jack Benny, Fred Allen, George Burns and Gracie Allen, Amos and Andy, and Fibber McGee and Molly. The soap opera dominated the daytime airwaves.Our Gal Sunday began each episode with the question, "Can a girl from a little mining town in the west find happiness as the wife of a wealthy and titled Englishman?’ Many a woman’s ear was glued to her radio every day in hopes of learning the answer. The heroics of the Lone Ranger, the Green Hornet, the Shadow, and Jack Armstrong, all-american boy, thrilled listeners both young and old and sold countless boxes of cereal. News broadcasts by commentators like H. V. Kaltenborn and Edward R. Murrow kept the public aware of the increasing crisis in Europe. Franklin Roosevelt used the medium in his "Fireside Chats" to influence public opinion. One of the most dramatic moments in radio history occurred on May 6, 1937, when the German airship Hindenburg burst into flames as it was about to land in Lakehurst, New Jersey. The horror of the incident was conveyed live by the reporter Herb Morrison. His reaction to what was happening in front of him still enthralls today. On October 30, 1938, a twenty-three-year-old Orson Welles’ broadcast on his Mercury Theater of the Air the H.G. Wells story War of the Worlds. Despite the disclaimer at the end of the program, the tale of a Martian invasion of Earth panicked a million listeners who mistook the play for a newscast. Such was the influence of radio in this its golden age.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

Notes over 1940-1950

FACTS about this decade.

 Population 132,122,000 Unemployed in 1940 – 8,120,000 National Debt $43 Billion Average Salary $1,299. Teacher’s salary $1,441 Minimum Wage $.43 per hour 55% of U.S. homes have indoor plumbing Antarctica is discovered to be a continent Life expectancy 68.2 female, 60.8 male Auto deaths 34,500 Supreme Court decides blacks do have a right to vote World War II changed the order of world power, the United States and the USSR became super powers Cold War begins. 

FACTS about this decade.

 Population 132,122,000 Unemployed in 1940 – 8,120,000 National Debt $43 Billion Average Salary $1,299. Teacher’s salary $1,441 Minimum Wage $.43 per hour 55% of U.S. homes have indoor plumbing Antarctica is discovered to be a continent Life expectancy 68.2 female, 60.8 male Auto deaths 34,500 Supreme Court decides blacks do have a right to vote World War II changed the order of world power, the United States and the USSR became super powers Cold War begins. 

Kingwood College Library American Cultural History The Twentieth Century

1940 – 1949

The 1940’s were dominated by World War II. European artists and intellectuals fled Hitler and the Holocaust, bringing new ideas created in disillusionment. War production pulled us out of the Great Depression. Women were needed to replace men who had gone off to war, and so the first great exodus of women from the home to the workplace began. Rationing affected the food we ate, the clothes we wore, the toys with which children played. 

After the war, the men returned, having seen the rest of the world. No longer was the family farm an ideal; no longer would blacks accept lesser status. The GI Bill allowed more men than ever before to get a college education. Women had to give up their jobs to the returning men, but they had tasted independence. 

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he forties are pretty well defined by World War II. US isolationism was shattered by the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. As President Franklin D. Roosevelt guided the country on the homefront, Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the troops in Europe. Gen. Douglas MacArthur and Adm. Chester Nimitz led them in the Pacific. The discovery of penicillin in 1940 revolutionized medicine. Developed first to help the military personnel survive war wounds, it also helped increase survival rates for surgery. The first eye bank was established at New York Hospital in 1944. Unemployment almost disappeared, as most men were drafted and sent off to war.

The government reclassified 55% of their jobs, allowing women and blacks to fill them. First, single women were actively recruited to the workforce. In 1943, with virtually all the single women employed, married women were allowed to work. Japanese immigrants and their descendants, suspected of loyalty to their homelands, were sent to internment camps. There were scrap drives

Returning GI’s created the baby boom, which is still having repercussions on American society today. Although there were rumors, it was only after the war ended that Americans learned the extent of the Holocaust. Realization of the power of prejudice helped lead to Civil Rights reforms over the next three decades.

The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act, commonly known as the GI Bill of Rights, entitled returning soldiers to a college education. In 1949, three times as many college degrees were conferred as in 1940. College became available to the capable rather than the privileged few.

Before the war, British and German inventors were working on jet aircraft. The designs had flaws, and the prototypes crashed, killing the pilots. It wasn’t until 1948 that a U.S. company, Boeing, developed the Sabre, the first operational jet fighter. Television made its’ debut at the 1939 World Fair, but the war interrupted further development. In 1947, commercial television with 13 stations became available to the public. Computers were developed during the early forties. The digital computer, named ENIAC, weighing 30 tons and standing two stories high, was completed in 1945.

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n architecture, nonessentials were eliminated, and simplicity became the key element. In some cases, such as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s famous glass house, even practicality was ignored. Modern glass-and-steel office buidings began to rise after the war ended. Pietro Belluschi designed the prototype Equitable Savings and Loan building, a "skyscraper" of twelve stories. Eliel Saarinen utilized contemporary design, particularly in churches. The dream home remained a Cape Cod. After the war, suburbs, typified by Levittown, with their tract homes and uniformity, sprang up to house returning GI’s and their new families. The average home was a one level Ranch House, a collection of previously unaffordable appliances surrounded by minimal living space. The family lawn became the crowning glory and symbol of pride in ownership.

MUSIC & RADIO

 

Like art, music reflected American enthusiasm tempered with European disillusionment. While the European emigres Bueno Walter, George Szell, Bela Bartok, Arnold Schoenberg, Paul Hindemith, Kurt Weill, and Nadia Boulanger introduced classical disonance, American born composers remained more traditional, with Aaron Copland’s Appalachian Spring (1944) and Rodeo (1942). William Schuman wrote his symphonies #3(1941) through #7(1949). At the beginning of the decade, Big Bands dominated popular music. Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman led some of the more famous bands. Eventually, many of the singers with the Big Bands struck out on their own. Bing Crosby’s smooth voice made him one of the most popular singers, vying with Frank Sinatra. Dinah Shore, Kate Smith and Perry Como also led the hit parade. Be-Bop and Rhythm and Blues, grew out of the big band era toward the end of the decade. Although these were distinctly black sounds, epitomized by Charlie Parker, Dizzie Gillespie, Thelonious Mon, Billy Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald and Woody Herman.

Radio was the lifeline for Americans in the 1940’s, providing news, music and entertainment,, much like television today. Programming included soap operas, quiz shows, children’s hours, mystery stories, fine drama, and sports. Kate Smith and Arthur Godfrey were popular radio hosts. The government relied heavily on radio for propaganda. Like the movies, radio faded in popularity as television became prominent. Many of the most popular radio shows continued on in television, including Red Skelton, Abbott and Costello, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, and Truth or Consequences

BOOKS & LITERATURE

The decade opened with the appearance of the first inexpensive paperback. Book clubs proliferated, and book sales went from one million to over twelve million volumes a year. Many important literary works were conceived during, or based on, this time period, but published later. Thus, it took a while for the horror of war and the atrocities of prejudice to come forth. Shirley Jackson wrote The Lottery to demonstrate how perpectly normal, otherwise nice people, could allow something like the Holocaust. In The Human Comedy, William Saroyan tackles questions of prejudice against the setting of World War II. Richard Wright completed Native Son in 1940 and Black Boy in 1945, earning acclaim, but government persecution over his communist affiliation sent him to Paris in 1945. Nonfiction writing proliferated, giving first-hand accounts of the war. The first edition of Dr. Benjamin Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care is considered by some to have changed child rearing.

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n popular dancing, the Jitterbug made it’s appearance at the beginning of the decade. It was the first dance in two centuries that allowed individual expression. GI’s took the dance overseas when they to war, dancing with local girls, barmaids, or even each other if necessary. Rosie the Riveter was the symbol of the working woman, as the men went off to war and the women were needed to work in the factories. GIs, however, preferred another symbol, the pin-up girl, such as Rita Hayworth or Betty Grable. Pictures were mounted on lockers and inside helmets to remind the men what they were fighting for.

Wherever American soldiers went, even the first to arrive would find a picture of eyes and a nose, with the message, Kilroy was Here. After they returned, Kilroy began to mark his place on the walls and rocks of public places. More than one pregnant woman came into the delivery room with "Kilroy was here" painted on her belly.

Working mothers, combined with another new phenomenon, the refrigerator, led to the invention of frozen dinners. With the advent of television later in the decade, they became known as TV Dinners. Tupperware and aluminum foil eased the postwar housewives’ burden, and diners, originally horse drawn carriages with a couple of barstools, became stationary and a respectable staple of the postwar culture. The Slinky was invented by a ship inspector in 1945. Teenagers became a recognized force in the forties. With the men off to war, teenagers – boys and girls – found employment readily available, and so had money to spend. Seventeen magazine was established in 1944. Advertisement began to be aimed at teens. With fathers away and mothers at work, another new phenomen arose – the juvenile delinquent.

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he Zoot Suit was the height of fashion among daring young men until the War Production Department restricted the amount of fabric that could be used in men’s garments. The same restrictions led to the popularity of the women’s convertible suit, a jacket, short skirt, and blouse. The jacket could be shed for more formal attire at night. Silk stockings were unavailable, so, to give the illusion with stockings with their prominent seam, women would draw a line up the backs of their legs with an eyeliner. At work, as "Rosie the Riveter" took on a man’s work, slacks became acceptable attire.

When the war and it’s restrictions ended, Christian Dior introduced the New Look, feminine dresses with long, full skirts, and tight waists. Comfortable, low-heeled shoes were forsaken for high heels. Hair was curled high on the head in front, and worn to the shoulders in the back, and make-up was socially acceptable. Glamourous Rita Hayworth made the sweater look popular. It took time to put the New Look together, time the women now had as the men returned to their jobs in the factories and offices

THEATER, FILM and TELEVISION

The theater, too, turned to abstractionism. Thornton Wilder’s The Skin of our Teeth (1942) was bizarre and difficult to understand but won the Pulitzer Prize. Tennessee Williams wrote of self-delusionment and futility in the Glass Menagerie (1945) and Streetcar named Desire (1947). In contrast Musical Theater was reborn, with Agnes de Mille’s technique of dancing in character in Oklahoma (1943). Carousel (1945), and Annie get your Gun (1946).

The forties were the heyday for movies. The Office of War declared movies an essential industry for morale and propaganda. Most plots had a fairly narrow and predictable set of morals, and if Germans or Japanese were included, they were one-dimensional villains. Examples are Casablanca, Mrs. Miniver, Lifeboat, Notorious, Best Years of our Lives, Wake Island, Battle of Midway, Guadalcanal Diary, Destination Tokyo. Citizen Kane, not fitting the template, was one of the masterpieces of the time. Leading actors were Gary Cooper, Humphrey Bogart, Katherine Hepburn, Cary Grant, Bette Davis, Marlene Dietrich, Joan Crawford, Judy Garland, Ginger Rogers, Jimmy Stewart, Marlon Brando, Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Lana Turner. Walt Disney’s career began to take off, with animated cartoons such as Fantasia (1940), Dumbo (1941), and Bambi (1942). During the war years, the studio produced cartoons for the government, such as Donald gets Drafted (1942), Out of the Frying Pan into the Firing Line (1942) and Der Fuehrer’s Face.

The Emergency Committee of the Entertainment Industry, composed of both black and white actors, fought for better roles for blacks. Lena Horne, Hattie McDaniel, and Cab Calloway, among others, made small inroads. The boom years of movies faded with the advent of television in 1948. TELEVISION

At the end of the war, only 5,000 television sets, with five inch black & white screens, were in American homes. By 1951, 17 million had been sold. The Original Amateur Hour, a revival of a popular radio show, was the first top-rated show in 1948 . Milton Berle’s slapstick comedy, Texaco Star Theater, was credited with creating the demand for televisions. It’s greatest rival was Ed Sullivan’s Toast of the Town.

Kukla, Fran & Ollie kicked off children’s television as Junior Jamboree in 1947, followed by the Howdy Doody Show. The sitcom made its appearance in January, 1949, with The Goldbergs

 

 

for steel, tin, paper and rubber. These were a source of supplies and gave people a means of supporting the war effort. Automobile production ceased in 1942, and rationing of food supplies began in 1943. Victory gardens were re-instituted and supplied 40% of the vegetables consumed on the home front. In April, 1945, FDR died, and President Harry Truman celebrated V-E Day on May 8, 1945. Japan surrendered only after two atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The United States emerged from World War II as a world superpower, challenged only by the USSR. While the USSR subjugated the defeated countries, the US implemented the Marshall Plan, helping war-torn countries to rebuild and rejoin the world economy. Disputes over ideology and control led to the Cold War. Communism was treated as a contagious disease, and anyone who had contact with it was under suspicion. Alger Hiss, a former hero of the New Deal, was indicted as a traitor and the House Un-American Activities Committee began its infamous hearings.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

History of 1920-1930

Town Improvements:

It’s the roaring 20s. The age will begin with economic prosperity and end in economic despair. But during this early boom time, neither Gallatin nor the rest of American has any hint of impending disaster.

Town Improvements:

It’s the roaring 20s. The age will begin with economic prosperity and end in economic despair. But during this early boom time, neither Gallatin nor the rest of American has any hint of impending disaster.

Gallatin has voted for paved streets, lighted by a modern white way <197> the long cherished dream entertained for years by the forward looking citizens of the community. A sewer system for the entire city is also planned.

"Gallatin will take rank among the leading cities of north Missouri in point of public improvements. Already equipped with modern water and electric lighting systems, with a new power house and oil engines, this latter improvement particularly valuable in this period of coal strikes; an up-to-date school building; a Y.M.C.A. building, the finest boasted of by a town of this size in the state; beautiful churches and homes, modern business and office buildings, recently constructed court house and wide streets that will be turned into excellent thoroughfares under the plans for paving. (Aug. 10, 1922)

Industry is increasing rapidly. Consumer spending is on the rise and the economy is steadily growing. Gov. Arthur M. Hyde terms farming as Missouri’s greatest industry.

"An industry representing so vast a capitalization and providing employment for so large a number of citizens of Missouri, and at the same time providing homes for nearly half of the population of the state, is an industry which challenges the attention of every man or woman interested in the future progress and development of this commonwealth. (Nov. 2, 1922)

Hogs are now our area farmer’s biggest income producer.

"Porkers of high degree contested for breeding points at the big Pig Show and Sale and Corn Exhibit held in Galaltin under the auspices of the Vocational Agriculture departments of the schools of the county. This is the first sale of the kind held in Daviess County. The farmers of the corn belt states have received more than half billion dollars cash during the first six months this year from the sale of fat hogs." (Oct. 5, 1922)

The first movement toward farm cooperatives is underway. There are as many different opinions on the subject as there are individual farmers. They range all the way from unstinted praise to bitter denunciation.

"That the cooperative movement does tend to impair the historic and cherished individualism of the farmer is true. For a cooperation to succeed all of its members must submit to standardization of their output as to the varieties, grades, times of harvesting and shipping and the like….But the cooperative movement is no longer something which any farmer who wants to get ahead can take or leave as he chooses. …in the course of a very few years all of the products of the farm…will be hauled by railway from grower to consumer by farmer owned cooperatives….Sooner or later the ultra-individualistic type of farmer will vanish and agriculture all over the country will assume the aspect of other business, in which team work is the essential element of success.(Feb. 28, 1939)

Television is still just a twinkle in the inventor’s eye during this era. This is the beginning of radio. Jazz is the music and the Charleston’s the dance craze. "Once you have a radio receiving set in your home you will never be without one," states an ad for the Reliable Electric Co. A new municipal radio set is installed at the local Y.M.C.A. The radio program was sent out by the Kansas City Star’s broadcasting station that evening.

"After the musical program, Gov. Hyde spoke on what the radio means to humanity in general and those of the rural districts in particular. (June 8, 1922)

Like all new technology, radio has its spits and starts. A crowd estimated at from 1500 to 2000 assembled in Pattonsburg to listen to the radio concert put on by the Pattonsburg Mill & Elevator Co.

"These lessened the pleasure of the entertainment. First, the men who installed the horn were too anxious to make it loud enough to satisfy and overdid it, making it a jumble and increasing the frying sound of the static; second, there was a rain storm between Kansas City and Pattonsburg, and third, there were too many cars backing and tooting around. Towards the last the operators got it toned down until it was very enjoyable.

John Rogers and wife could hear it very plainly at their home, a mile northeast of town, and it reported that Jesse Morris heard it, and supposing some big-gun politician was making a speech, came down to see what was going on. He lives a quarter of a mile farther away than John Rogers. George Auldridge who lives a quarter or better north of Jesse, says he heard it, but was too tired and sleepy to sit up and listen to it."

Not everyone is pleased with the way things are going. Coal miners go on strike and a fuel commission for Daviess County has an unpleasant task.

"In our opinion the coal supply is very uncertain. Schools, flour mills, hotels, restaurants, ice and light plants will have first supply…dwelling will be about the last. In the churches of the county, the brethren will have to dwell togther in unity…This committee receives no salary — not even one dollar a year, nothing for postage or other expenses, so please don’t cuss us if we don’t get your view point." (Aug. 31, 1922)

Nature takes another heavy toll this decade.

"Another great flood! Waters of Grand River spread over entire bottoms. Greatest loss of crops in history of county. Many are made homeless by fast rising tides. Town of Pattonsburg again entirely covered by flood water. Exceeded only in 1909." (July 13, 1922)

"Fire sweeps west side! One of most disastrous blazes in history of Gallatin takes entire old court house block, entailing an estimated loss of $100,000. Only telephone building left standing. Five buildings and contents claimed by flames. Pettijohn building, housing Payne Furniture Co, and Cox Restaurant; Alexander building, Jacob Mann Second Hand Store; law offices, Judge J.W. Alexander and O.O. Mettle, second floor; Mrs. C.A. Nixon one story farm building, housing T.P. Leabo Barber Shop and H.E. Roland Shoe Shop and one story Alexander building housing C.F. Dannar Shoe Shop and A.R. Maffitt Real Estate and Loan Office. Sparks set court house afire. (May 15, 1924)

For the most part, things are roaring right along.

Gasoline is 23 cents a gallon. The 12th annual Gallatin Chautauqua was a "successful assembly in every particular" (Aug. 31, 1922) Gallatin has four churches. The Buick automobile is the popular car of the area. A 6 cylinder 3 passenger Roadster sells for $1305. (Aug. 10, 1922)

Showing at the Courter Theatre in the summer of 1922 was Tom Mix in "Up and Doing" You all like Tom Mix, and this is one of his best. The beautiful Marion Davies in "Enchantment," a clever and brilliant satire on the modern society "Flapper," gorgeously screened and superbly acted. A picture that you will be glad that you came to see. And Alice Lake in "Over the Wire." Alice Lake is very clever and at her best in this picture. (Aug. 24, 1922)

Women are no longer confined to home and the kitchen. The flapper of the 20s was a bit of a rebel. She defies convention. She bobs her hair and wears short skirts and lipstick. She upsets more than old fashion trends. She upsets tradition, ideas of acceptable feminine behavior, and the older generation.

A guest columnists has this to say about it:

"Ultra-feminists, whose purpose in life seems to be to break up the American home and put married life on the plane of the cheapest illicit love-affair. Because this ‘modern’ idea runs contrary to the most deep-seated traditions every expression of it gets a lot of publicity…But it by no means follows that American family life is in danger. Home and babies and a husband with a good job are what the overwhelming majority of American girls still want in marriage. (Feb. 4, 1930)

The Ku Klux Klan is making its move in Gallatin.

"A Ku Klux Klan national lecturer spoke at the Courter theater here Sunday afternoon, and there was a fair sized crowd present to hear his address….He declared the Klan stood for Americanism, law enforcement, free speech, free press, free public schools with the putting back of the Bible, protection of pure womanhood, supremacy of the white race and Protestant Christianity. The speaker did not wear any Klan garb, and in the main his remarks might be called a patriotic address. Those who attended the meeting, or at least a great majority of them, attended more out of curiosity than anything else. The speaker had no introduction, and left the theater just about as hurriedly. We never learned his name. Some blank cards were passed out, with instructions that those who cared to sign them could mail them to Trenton. No fiery cross was displayed, nor were there any evidence of organization at this meeting save the passing out of these cards, and collection by some one at the door. Whether the Klan is to be perfected here we do not know. To date locally it is only a curiosity proposition. (May 31, 1923)

 

Chicago had Al Capone. Gallatin had its own reckless, ruthless gangsters.

"Laying down a regular army barrage, warning all comers to keep in the clear, robbers, believed to have been six of them, entered the First National Bank in Gallatin about 3 o’clock this morning, blew the big vault and safe, wounded John Chamberlain, veteran night officer, wrecked the bank interior, and escaped with about $4,100 in gold and currency and registered Liberty bonds in one of the most daring and deliberate bank robberies ever pulled off in this section of the state, the yeggmen using a full one hour’s time to complete the job. John Chamberlain, night-watchman, who was wounded, was held a prisoner in the stairway, west of the bank, for one full hour. Mayor J.H. Tate and Frank A. Woodruff also received slight buck shot wounds from the shot gun barrage sent down the street by the bandits. (Nov. 23, 1922)

Last night’s robbery recalls Gallatin’s other bank robbery December 7, 1869, when Capt. John W. Sheets, cashier of the Daviess County Savings Association, was killed . In a few more days it will have been 53 years since this robbery. (Nov. 23, 1922)

People no doubt heard the news of the robbery while sitting on the porch, listening to jazz on the radio, and maybe sipping bootlegged whiskey out of a mason jar. Prohibition is in full force. Alcohol-related accidents had a whole different meaning back then. One unfortunate young man, Hammitt Ward, met a horrible death when his auto left a bridge on a road near Carlow.

"He was said to have been in an intoxicated condition and this was his third or fourth trip between the towns. Many are of the opinion that he was transporting "white corn" from Carlow to Breckenridge. He drove a Ford car and instead of having regular headlight he used a lantern to light his way. In leaving the wooden culvert the car turned turtle and in some manner Ward was pinned between the top of the seat and one of the bows at the top of the car. The drop from the bridge was about eight feet and the fire must have started from the lantern catching the leaking gasoline from the car. (June 22, 1922)

The writer of the Magill Items had more to say about the accident:

"All indications were that local corn juice was mixed up in this affair and was directly responsible for this poor man’s death. And this leads us to believe that the county officer we now have whose duty it is to look after such matters, are entirely blind, and not only blind, but have lost all sense of smell, for there are a number of places near where this accident happened, that can be smelled for at least one-half a mile, so with at least five stills running full blast within one-half mile square and two more running within a mile of them, it shows plainly that the officers are in the condition above described, for we know they would not neglect their duty in matters of this kind, nor, would an officer send any man word two days ahead of time that he was going to search his premises, and to get his still covered up so he could not see it. However, the people of this vicinity have their weather eye on candidates who are before them now, and if there is no show of keeping them off their ticket in the primary, there will surely come a day that will see some of their names with pencil mark plainly drawn through them." (June 22, 1922)

While the citizen of Magill had the right idea in how to handle a complaint about lax law enforcement <197> through the election process <197> some had other ideas about how to get things done:

"This letter was received by Sheriff Gildow. We print it just as it was received:

To the sheriff and prosecuting attorney. We hereby warm you to clean up Stills and bootleggers at once We know you are in with them you come to Carlow and get boose…you know who and where all the still is distroy them at once and clean up or this is the end of you it never was know to be in such a condishion supporting such a man as you no other county in the state like Daviess come from all over the country everywhere after boose get buisy at once last worning short notice. <197> K.K.K. (July 13, 1922)

Sheriff Gildow had his hands full trying to keep track of the bootleggers.

"Last Thursday evening 27 sacks of sweetness, each weighing 100 pounds, were taken from the Paul E. Comstock Grocery Store at Carlow. A quantity of corn chop was also taken. These two "ingredients" are used quite extensively in the manufacture of a certain beverage. A search was instituted by the officers and several premises were investigated. We understand six sacks of the sugar, also 200 pounds of the corn chop were found in the weeds near the James Drummond farm, east of Carlow, Friday night. The amount of sugar and corn chop taken from the store would make enough "bug juice" to make all the citizens of the whole county ‘sit up and take notice.

"In making search of the country, the officers located a regular "French dug-out," which had been the home of a still. The dug-out was fixed up in great shape, with good covering and underground entrance. Sheriff Gildow says it reminded him of the "war hide-aways" in France. Parts of a dismantled still were evident in the dug-out. (Aug. 10, 1922)

Thirty-three barrels of mash is the total capture of wet goods by Sheriff J. Frank Gildow in three trips to the Carlow country this week, and the liquid refreshments were taken from three farms, all within a short distance of each other.

‘Upon seeing strange faces approaching, the custodian of the stills took across the country at a gait which would give a rabbit no look in whatever when it come to moving fast. Hills and hollows did not decrease his speed,’ said Sheriff Gildow.

Samples of the thirty-three barrels were brought back by Sheriff Gildow, and the remainder of the joy juice was dumped and all the fish in Grand River may be on a spree." (Oct. 26, 1922)

 

Thursday, October 24, 1929. Black Thursday. The day the New York Stock Exchange crashed.

The "Roaring Twenties" are over. The Great Depression has begun.

Editor Wm. G. Robertson is still optimistic. He writes the following:

"While stocks "faw down and go boom" and a multitude of speculators find themselves the victims, our national prosperity continues on an even keel. During the height of the Wall Street slump in the market should have no great effect on our national prosperity. Level headed government, a sound banking system…keeps the indisposition of Wall Street from throwing the entire nation out of whack. (Nov. 5, 1929)

Less than three months later, Mr. Robertson writes: "The three million unemployed of this country are looking hungrily for that promised Hoover prosperity." (Jan. 21, 1930)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A proposal making voting in Missouri compulsory, and providing a penalty for failure to vote, was submitted to the constitutional convention today by W. T. Johnson of Kansas City. Failure to comply would be a misdemeanor.

Mrs. Elizabeth Hawkins, who bore the distinction of being the first white child born in Daviess County, died in Kansas at 90 years of age.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Researched by Wilbur Bush

1920-1930

General Sites

The 1920’s Experience

American Prohibition

Decades of Prosperity: the Twenties

Flapper Culture & Jazz (The 1920’s)

Flapper Station

The Roaring Twenties

The Women’s Suffrage Movement & The 19th Amendment

Ahead of Their Time: A Brief History of Woman Suffrage in Illinois

Biography of Suffragists — very brief biographies

Created Equal: History of the Suffrage Movement

A History of the American Suffragist Movement

The History of the Suffrage Movement

The History of Women’s Suffrage

The Long Road to Suffrage

One Hundred Years Toward Suffrage — timeline

General Sites

The 1920’s Experience

American Prohibition

Decades of Prosperity: the Twenties

Flapper Culture & Jazz (The 1920’s)

Flapper Station

The Roaring Twenties

The Women’s Suffrage Movement & The 19th Amendment

Ahead of Their Time: A Brief History of Woman Suffrage in Illinois

Biography of Suffragists — very brief biographies

Created Equal: History of the Suffrage Movement

A History of the American Suffragist Movement

The History of the Suffrage Movement

The History of Women’s Suffrage

The Long Road to Suffrage

One Hundred Years Toward Suffrage — timeline

It was a time of conservatism, it was a time of great social change. From the

world of fashion to the world to politics, forces clashed to produce the most

explosive decade of the century.

In music, the three sounds were jazz, jazz, and jazz. The Jazz Age came

about with artist like Bessie Smith and Duke Ellington. Youth ruled

everything. From the young styles of dress to the latest celebrities. If it was

young, it was the thing.

It was the age of prohibition, it was the age of prosperity, and it was the age

of downfall. It was the age of everything, and you’ll find [almost] everything

here. Thank you for visiting our site.

People: Al Capone and Charles Lindbert

Events Stockmarket Crash….October 1929…

Background:

Thursday, October 24, 1929 has the dubious honor of being called Black Thursday because it was on this day that the New York Stock Exchange crashed,

heralding the end of the "Roaring Twenties" and the beginning of the Great Depression. We’ve all read about it in the history books, but what was it like for the

people of the time? What did they see in the newspaper when it happened? What did they see that might have warned them of the impending trouble — or worse,

might have helped cause it??

[In the 1920’s, things were really rocking in the US and around the world. The rapid increase in industrialization was fueling growth in the economy, and technology

improvements had the leading economists believing that the uprise would continue. During this boom period, wages increased along with consumer spending, and

stock prices began to rise as well. Billions of dollars were invested in the stock market as people began speculating on the rising stock prices and buying on margin.

The enormous amount of unsecured consumer debt created by this speculation left the stock market essentially off-balance. Many investors, caught up in the race to

make a killing, invested their life savings, mortgaged their homes, and cashed in safer investments such as treasury bonds and bank accounts. As the prices

continued to rise, some economic analysts began to warn of an impending correction, but they were largely ignored by the leading pundits. Many banks, eager to

increase their profits, began speculating dangerously with their investments as well. Finally, in October 1929, the buying craze began to dwindle, and was followed

by an even wilder selling craze.

On Thursday, October 24, 1929, the bottom began to fall out. Prices dropped precipitously as more and more investors tried to sell their holdings. By the end of

the day, the New York Stock Exchange had lost four billion dollars, and it took exchange clerks until five o’clock AM the next day to clear all the transactions.

By the following Monday, the realization of what had happened began to sink in, and a full-blown panic ensued. Thousands of investors — many of them ordinary

working people, not serious "players" — were financially ruined. By the end of the year, stock values had dropped by fifteen billion dollars.

Many of the banks which had speculated heavily with their deposits were wiped out by the falling prices, and these bank failures sparked a "run" on the banking

system. Each failed bank, factory, business, and investor contributed to the downward spiral that would drag the world into the Great Depression.

 

The flapper, whose antics were immortalized in the cartoons of John Held Jr., was the heroine of the Jazz Age. With short

hair and a short skirt, with turned-down hose and powdered knees – the flapper must have seemed to her mother (the gentle

Gibson girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel. No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young

women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen. Mostly, the flapper offended the older

generation because she defied conventions of acceptable feminine behavior. The flapper was "modern." Traditionally,

women’s hair had always been worn long. The flapper wore it short, or bobbed. She used make-up (which she might well

apply in public). And the flapper wore baggy dresses which often exposed her arms as well as her legs from the knees

down. However, flappers did more than symbolize a revolution in fashion and mores – they embodied the modern spirit of

the Jazz Age. For more information, check out these other related websites.

 

Costumes / Fashion

Men: Clothing for men became a bit more conservative in the 1920s. Trouseres widened to as wide as 24 inches at the

bottomes. Knickers grew in width and length and were called ‘plus fours’. White linen was popular during the summer.

And during the winter, an outstanding American coat was popular – the racoon coat. These were very popular with the

college men. The slouch hat was made of felt and could be rolled up and packed into a suitcase. A wool suit was only

$15.85. Garters were 40 cents. All this and a 12" long cigarette holder. Cigarettes were 10 cents a pack.

Women: By 1921 the longer skirt was back – some long and uneven at the bottom. The short skirt was popular by 1925.

This period was called the Flapper Age. No bosom, no waistline, and hair nearly hidden under a cloche hat. This decade

began the present hey-dey for the manufacturing of cosmetics. Powder, lipstick, rouge, eyebrow pencil, eye shadow,

colored nails. They had it all!

This period marked the spread of ready-to-wear fashion. More women were wage earners and did not want to spent time

on fittings. The status symbol aspect of fashion was losing its importants as class distinctions were becoming blurred.

Inexpensive fashion became available. America moved ahead of other countries mass production of contemporary style

clothing for women. America even produced several designers of this fashion including Jane Derby.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

In history: 1910-1920

1910: Halley’s comet. China abolishes slavery. Thomas Edison demonstrates

"talkie" movies. In Seattle, Washington women win vote. Aviator Charles

Hamilton flies first heavier-than-air flight here. Union Pacific arrives.

1910: Halley’s comet. China abolishes slavery. Thomas Edison demonstrates

"talkie" movies. In Seattle, Washington women win vote. Aviator Charles

Hamilton flies first heavier-than-air flight here. Union Pacific arrives.

1911: Roald Amundsen first to South Pole. In Seattle, Port of Seattle created.

Broadway High grad Arthur Freed opens music shop, later becomes

Hollywood producer of "Singin’ in the Rain" in 1940s.

1912: Woodrow Wilson elected president. Titanic sinks. Geologist Aldred

Wegener proposes continental-drift theory. In Seattle, bill posters organize,

halibut fishermen strike, miners locked out. Grace Presbyterian Church

founded, joining Mount Zion Baptist Church as centers for black community.

1913: Panama Canal opens. Sixteenth and 17th constitutional amendments

create income tax and Federal Reserve system. In Seattle, NAACP chapter

formed. First auto ferry, Leschi, tested.

1914: Black South Africans protest white land grab. Nine million Japanese

starve. In Seattle, Nellie Cornish, Boston-trained music teacher, founds

Cornish School. Ahavath Ahim (Jewish) congregation founded. West Seattle’s

Youngstown steel-mill strike.

1915: Ocean liner Lusitania sinks. D.W. Griffith’s film "Birth of a Nation"

opens. Somerset Maugham’s book "Of Human Bondage" published. In

Seattle, Herbert Munter builds first airplane on Harbor Island. Coliseum, first

American grand movie palace, opens. Longshoremen, ship workers, road

workers strike.

1916: Wilson re-elected. Mexican Pancho Villa loses at Chihuahua. Easter

Sunday Irish patriot uprising. Author Jack London dies. Montana’s Jeannette

Rankin, formerly active in Seattle social services, is first U.S. congresswoman.

Boeing launches Aero Products Co., later The Boeing Co.

1917: U.S. enters World War I. Bolshevik revolution. In Seattle, Lake

Washington Ship Canal opens. In addition to other strikes, building trades

strike construction jobs to protest lumber from mills with 10 hour shifts.

1918: War ends in armistice. World flu pandemic. In Seattle, railway terminals

consolidate, ending travel chaos.

1919: Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata killed. First atoms "split." In

Seattle, Boeing and pilot Eddie Hubbard deliver first international air mail to

Vancouver, B.C. City acquires streetcar system.

the movement to ban liquor grew from the temperance movement out West,

where alcoholism and lawlessness were rampant after the Civil War and Gold

Rush days. In 1874, the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement formed

to combine religious fervor with the fight against liquor.

1913

5,000 suffragists march in Washington, D.C. for the women’s rights movement.

1915

A petition with 500,000 signatures in support of women’s suffrage amendment is given to President Woodrow Wilson.

Despite its novelty and its rudimentary audio quality, the telephone

took a quick and fierce hold on American society, and soon became

a necessity.

The first telephone operators were boys, who soon earned a

reputation for being rude and abusive to each other as well as to the

customers. The young women who replaced them did not swear and

were said to be faster, and by 1910, New York Telephone had

6,000 women working on its switchboards. While the telephone

joined teaching in finally bringing significant numbers of women into

the workplace, there were rigid codes of dress and conduct the

women had to follow. "You could only use certain phrases —

‘Number please’ and ‘Thank you,’" recalls a former operator,

98-year-old Marie McGrath. "The customer could say anything they

wanted to you, and you would say, ‘Thank you.’"

By 1915, the wiring of America was complete. In an undertaking as

monumental as the construction of the trans-American railroad,

AT&T strung 14,000 miles of copper wire across the country.

Thirty-nine years after the first demonstration of telephone, the

68-year-old Bell was summoned by AT&T to New York to

recreate his first call — this time calling his friend and partner

Thomas Watson in San Francisco.

1908 Model T

Car maker Henry Ford introduces his Model T automobile. By

1927, when it is discontinued, 15.5 million Models T’s will be sold in

the U.S. Ford owes much of his success to his improved assembly

line process, which by 1913 will produce a complete Model T every

93 minutes.

1911 Self Starter

Charles F. Kettering, who developed the electric cash register while

working at National Cash Register, sells his electric automobile

starters to the Cadillac company. This device increases the

popularity of the gasoline-powered car, which no longer needs to be

started with a hand crank.

1914 Panama Canal

After 36 years’ labor, the bankruptcy of thousands of investors, and

the deaths of more than 25,000 men, the Panama Canal is finished.

The canal cuts the sailing distance from the East Coast to the West

Coast by more than 8,000 miles.

1917 War

U.S. troops arrive on the battlefields of Europe, where new

technologies have created the bloodiest conflict in history. Armored

tanks, machine guns, poisonous gas, submarines and airplanes will

force military commanders to rethink traditional strategies of war.

1919 Hydrofoil

Alexander Grahams Bell’s "Hydrodome IV" sets a world record of

70 mph for water travel. The boat weighs over 10,000 pounds and

uses underwater fins to raise the hull of the boat and decrease drag

between the hull and the water.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

No time to strike (May 1932)

With thousands of workers unemployed across our nation, threatening to strike was not an intelligent thing to do. At the beginning of a road building project of paving a six mile stretch of road between the Gallatin and the Altamont city limits, it was estimated it would take approximately five weeks to complete the job. Several delays had been caused due to the lack of equipment and bad weather.

With thousands of workers unemployed across our nation, threatening to strike was not an intelligent thing to do. At the beginning of a road building project of paving a six mile stretch of road between the Gallatin and the Altamont city limits, it was estimated it would take approximately five weeks to complete the job. Several delays had been caused due to the lack of equipment and bad weather.

Truck owners and drivers for the McGlone Paving Co. had a "walk-out." They demanded more money per mile. Upon encountering the boss about more pay, they were fired. A few hours later, a few of the men returned and wanted their jobs back. However, their request was turned down.

Some of the striking men had worked for the company several years and had never shown any dissatisfaction over wages. It was thought newly hired workers were behind the plan. New workers were soon hired in their place and work proceeded as usual.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

A Young Married Couple Facing The Depression

This paper was written by Leroy Stretch in 1976 as an assignment for a social studies class for Barbara Foley, the teacher. Roy Herbert McLey (1889-1976) and Cora Mae Saul (1905-1978) married just as the Great Depression hit the nation. They were the grandparents of Leroy Stretch. The following story is an account of the depression of the 1930s as told by Leroy’s grandmother, Cora McLey

This paper was written by Leroy Stretch in 1976 as an assignment for a social studies class for Barbara Foley, the teacher. Roy Herbert McLey (1889-1976) and Cora Mae Saul (1905-1978) married just as the Great Depression hit the nation. They were the grandparents of Leroy Stretch. The following story is an account of the depression of the 1930s as told by Leroy’s grandmother, Cora McLey

In 1933, the people of Daviess County and many surrounding counties experienced a rather dry year. But what was worse than the drought was the fact of a chinch bug plague. They were so bad that they ruined most of the corn crops. They caused the feed to be of very poor quality and very scarce that winter.

The year of 1934 brought no better luck for the people. The summer had been so terribly hot and dry. Cora and Roy McLey were married on Sunday, Aug. 19, 1934. On the night before they were married it came a good rain. Sunday was a beautiful day. On Monday some of the neighbors started helping Grandpa cut corn. It clouded up and came a good rain. The men were so wet and so cold that Grandpa started a fire in the cookstove so they could warm up. From then on they had plenty of rain that fall.

The tomatoes started growing and setting on little tomatoes. They had an early frost so the ground under the plants was covered with green tomatoes. They had very few garden vegetables to can for the family’s winter food supply.

They had a very hard winter – a lot of snow and cold. There was a severe blizzard just before Christmas that blocked roads and tore down telephone lines. A repair crew got as far as Grandpa’s house but could go no further without the help of horses. They hired Grandpa with his horses to pull them through the drifts so they could repair the lines. He was with them two days. They gave him his dinner, feed for his horses, and paid him $16 for the two days. The first thing Grandpa bought with the money was two pairs of long underwear which cost him 75 cents a pair. He spent the rest of the money for groceries. That $16 sure was a big Christmas present, although Grandpa got awfully cold wearing it when he had such few clothes.

The little one room school was a gathering place for most all community entertainment.

The community where my grandparents lived would meet together twice a month and everyone had a very good time together. There were only four students enrolled in the school, one of which was my aunt who was a first grader. The little town of Farmersville was close by. In the summer, a community talent show was held on Saturday night on the porch of the grocery store for everyone to enjoy.

Grandma’s parents gave them a Hampshire gilt for a wedding present. They bought another one for $2. The gilts were six months old. Great Grandpa Saul sold the remaining 27 head of hogs on the market. They sold for enough money to pay the trucking bill and bought 25 pounds of lard. After Grandma and Grandpa were married, the feed grain was so scarce that the first hogs they butchered were not fat at all. The animals were so poor that Grandpa didn’t even cut the sides and ribs apart. They just cut the meat in chunks and boiled it because they couldn’t have chewed it if it was fried.

In the thirties, $25 would go farther than it will today. People who had two pairs of shoes were very lucky. The clothes were worn out before they were disposed of. They never heard of such a thing as a garage sale.

A new Maytag washing machine was bought for $50 and paid in installment of $5 per month. Before Grandma was married, she worked for several people in their homes. She was paid from $3 to $5 a week and they thought they were getting rich! Farm help could be hired for $1 a day and men were just glad to find a job. Grandpa’s had plenty of milk to use and some cream to sell. But the hens refused to lay because of the kind of feed they could afford to give them. They were without eggs many a day.

Grandma’s wedding dress cost $3. Her rayon hose were 18 cents and her oxfords cost $2. Many kinds of material sold from 10 cents to 25 cents a yard. Flour and sugar were bought in 25 to 50 pound white cloth sacks. Many women used these sacks to make undergarments. It was a good quality of material. Grandpa bought a good work horse for $15 and a young Guernsey bull for $25.

In the year of 1935, there was more rain than in the previous year. Crops were looking pretty good and people were becoming more encouraged. Then they realized that things weren’t going so well after all. A great mass of grasshoppers began to move in and stripped the corn crops. They didn’t seem to bother the milo and beans as bad as the corn. There was more feed for the livestock that winter than the winter before.

The year of 1936 was more promising to everyone. There were better crops and better gardens. This helped a lot. Grandma had a peach tree that had a lot of nice peaches on it – the first in several years. The peaches were about ready to pick. Grandpa and Grandma went to town one Saturday evening. When they returned home they discovered that someone had picked all of their lovely peaches. You can imagine the disappointment they experienced! Someone else must have been hungry for peaches, too!

Not only were the prices of everyday items low, but land prices also hit rock bottom. Many people lost their land and homes because they just didn’t have the money to make the payments. In 1942, my grandparents were able to buy an 80 acre farm for $37.50 an acre. They sold it in 1965 for $150 an acre. This is an example of how prices have climbed and are still climbing today.

As we hear about these situations that people experienced during the depression years, we realize that the people had to depend on each other and work together. They had to – there was no other way.

Written as a class paper by Leroy Stretch, Gallatin R-5 School, 1976

The Sewing Room

A sewing room was established in the Daviess County courthouse to help both the needy and to provide jobs. The Sewing Room was located at the courthouse and workers received 30 cents per hour with the exception of a few skilled workers who were paid 40 cents per hour.

A sewing room was established in the Daviess County courthouse to help both the needy and to provide jobs. The Sewing Room was located at the courthouse and workers received 30 cents per hour with the exception of a few skilled workers who were paid 40 cents per hour.

At first workers were employed 30 hours per week, but was reduced later to 15 hours in order to distribute funds among more families. To be eligible for work, the women had to be dependent upon her own resources for living, or she must have dependents, or a husband sick or otherwise unable to work.

If they could, they were asked to bring their sewing machines and cloth or material that could be used to make garments. All the materials had to be furnished by the local community.

In a period extending from December 31, 1933, to February 15, 1934, over 1,500 garments were made and distributed to approximately 600 people.

A few examples of things that were made were: 179 dresses, 43 comforts and blankets, 15 comfort liners and tops, 14 rugs, nine aprons, 94 bloomers, 19 skirts, 39 coats, 23 overalls, 77 shirts, 14 trousers, eight pairs of curtains, 253 mended pairs of hose, 33 boy’s suits, 64 slips, 22 boy’s pants, 11 sweaters, 13 boy’s waists, underwear, 61 suits, 69 dolls, seven caps, 35 pair of gloves, 35 pajamas, four layettes, 13 pairs of pillow cases, three collars, and nine table spreads.

By 1936, five sewing rooms had been established in Daviess County being located at Gallatin, Pattonsburg, Coffey, Jamesport, and Jameson. Among other things, 737 shirts and 267 dresses had been made by 55 ladies. It was said the sewing rooms had exceeded anything accomplished in surrounding counties.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2004)

New Allotment of Seed Money

In the spring of 1933, many farmers were once again faced with the problem of not having money to purchase seed and raise their crops. The government established another program to help those farmers who couldn’t get credit elsewhere. Some of the regulations were the same as in previous years. The 1933 qualifications were for:

In the spring of 1933, many farmers were once again faced with the problem of not having money to purchase seed and raise their crops. The government established another program to help those farmers who couldn’t get credit elsewhere. Some of the regulations were the same as in previous years. The 1933 qualifications were for:

1. Those unable to obtain credit elsewhere.

2. Those having acreages fit for planting.

3. Those having equipment for farming.

4. Those whose major income was from farming.

5. Those who agree to plant a garden.

6. Those who agree to plant sufficiently for feed for livestock.

7. Those who agree to use seed and methods approved by the representatives of the Department of Agriculture county agent or advisor..

8. Those who agree to reduce the acreage of each cash crop 30% below the acreages planted in 1932, excepting sugar beets, provided that the foregoing shall not apply to borrowers who will not plant in 1933, more than eight acres of cotton, four acres to tobacco, 40 acres to wheat, 20 acres to corn, 15 acres to beans, eight acres to potatoes, two and one-half acres to truck crops.

9. Those who did not farm in 1932, provided they shall not plant an acreage in excess of those listed in #8 above, and in addition thereto, one acre of garden, three acres of hay.

The loans also had regulations:

1. Maximum loan, $300.

2. Minimum loan, $25.

3. Maximum aggregate loan to tenants of one landlord, $1,200.

4. Loans had to be made in multiples of $5.

5. Loans had to bear interest at 5 ˝ % per annum.

6. Loans were due October 31, 1933.

7. Loans had to be secured by first mortgage liens on all crops grown, planted and harvested by the borrower in 1933.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2004)

Building Gravel Roads — “Highway West 65”

In the 20s and 30s, mud roads became outdated by the arrival of the automobiles. Gravel roads became a must. State funds were now utilized to establish rock quarries. At one time, Daviess County utilized 47 men to work on a seven mile stretch of road. A Gallatin quarry employed 50 men and crushed eight loads of stone daily. Two shifts of men were utilized for a five day work week of six hours. Daily. Other quarries were opened at Pattonsburg and Jamesport.

In the 20s and 30s, mud roads became outdated by the arrival of the automobiles. Gravel roads became a must. State funds were now utilized to establish rock quarries. At one time, Daviess County utilized 47 men to work on a seven mile stretch of road. A Gallatin quarry employed 50 men and crushed eight loads of stone daily. Two shifts of men were utilized for a five day work week of six hours. Daily. Other quarries were opened at Pattonsburg and Jamesport.

In 1934, Daviess County started construction on a 26 mile stretch of road designated to become Highway West 65. An estimated 237 men would be utilized for five months, and unemployment would then drop to a low ebb. This highway was later given the name Highway 13.

A contract was let for the grading of 6 highway for 22.5 miles, or from Gallatin to the Cameron Junction. Camps would be established at suitable points since the project would take five to six months. The first camps to be established would be two and four miles from Gallatin. To do the project, 40 dump wagons, two caterpillar trucks, two blade graders and approximately 100 mules would be utilized as well as a large labor force.

The demand for crushed rock continued to skyrocket. By late 1935, Grand River Township purchased a new crusher which was said to be one of the latest models and therefore one of the most efficient crushers. It was claimed the new machine had a capacity of ten to fifteen yards of rock per hour, which meant 150 yards of paving rock per day.

Reprinted from The Jameson Gem, Feb. 8, 1934: “Hwy. 13 Passing through Jameson; Machines, Men and Mules” — researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2004)

Pearl Robinson Remembers The Depression

Pearl Robinson, an 85-year old resident of Lake Viking Health Care, shared memories of the Great Depression during the week of Sept. 1, 2003. She recalls how her dad worked on the railroad as a section hand even though he had lung cancer. His brother stayed with them, and if her dad couldn’t go to work on a bad day, his brother worked his shift for him.

Pearl Robinson, an 85-year old resident of Lake Viking Health Care, shared memories of the Great Depression during the week of Sept. 1, 2003. She recalls how her dad worked on the railroad as a section hand even though he had lung cancer. His brother stayed with them, and if her dad couldn’t go to work on a bad day, his brother worked his shift for him.

Mrs. Robinson remembers how her family made it through the rough times: "My mother did washings for other people. Many times I had to stay home from school and help her until recess time, which was at ten o’clock. When I went to school late, my teacher didn’t care and didn’t say anything because she knew why I was late."

Pearl’s family raised and cured their own meat. The cured meat was usually hanging down from the ceiling of the smokehouse. They canned the sausage in jars and left it in the house so it wouldn’t freeze.

Pearl remembers the hordes of grasshoppers that would fly on the porch while she was standing on it, and how these hungry grasshoppers ate the stems out of the onions.

One of Pearl’s neighbors was having a hard time getting along during the Depression. She would sometimes fill the bottom layers of the egg cases with rocks and put eggs in the top layers and take the egg cases to market.

Pearl’s neighbor had to let her children take turns going to school. They had to ride horses to school, but didn’t have enough horses for everyone to ride. For example, if there was both a third grader and a fourth grader in the home at the same time, the third grader would go to school one year while the fourth grader stayed home. The following year the one that stayed at home the previous year would go to her grade and the one that went to school the previous year stayed home.

Other neighbors had it equally as hard. One family was extra large and was often out of food. When their supply was low, they would go to the store and tell the owner they were out of food. He’d put a box in the store and write their name on it. People would sometimes put food in it, and he usually donated some. He did his part to see that people had food to eat.

People helped each other in various ways. Her dad’s boss, for instance, had a piano for sale and wanted to know if he wanted to buy it for her for $80. Upon telling him he didn’t have any money, his boss said he’d loan him the money just to help out.

Interview of Pearl Robinson conducted by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Gravel Road Construction Camps

During the Great Depression era the government started to gravel the endless miles of dirt roads both to improve the country and furnish thousands of jobs to the unemployed. Both rock crushers and man power were needed. At one time, Daviess County utilized 47 men to work on a 7-mile stretch of road. A Gallatin quarry employed 50 men and crushed eight loads of stone daily. Two shifts of men were utilized to work six hours daily for a five day workweek. Other quarries were opened at Pattonsburg and Jamesport.

During the Great Depression era the government started to gravel the endless miles of dirt roads both to improve the country and furnish thousands of jobs to the unemployed. Both rock crushers and man power were needed. At one time, Daviess County utilized 47 men to work on a 7-mile stretch of road. A Gallatin quarry employed 50 men and crushed eight loads of stone daily. Two shifts of men were utilized to work six hours daily for a five day workweek. Other quarries were opened at Pattonsburg and Jamesport.

A contract was let for the grading of 6 Highway for 22.5 miles, or from Gallatin to the Cameron Junction. Camps would be established at suitable points since the project would take five to six months. The first camps to be established would be two and four miles from Gallatin. To do the project, forty dump wagons, two caterpillar trucks, two blade graders and approximately 100 mules would be utilized.

The demand for crushed rock continued to increase. The Grand River Township purchased a new crusher which was one of the most efficient models. It was claimed the new machine had a capacity of 10 to 15 yards of rock per hour.

In 1934, Daviess County started construction on a 26-mile stretch of road designated to become Highway West 65. An estimated two hundred 37 men would be utilized for five months, and unemployment would then drop to a low ebb. This highway was later given the name Highway 13.

 Local labor with dependents would get the first call on the road work. If the right-of-way could be cleared up, the road would go from Hamilton, through Gallatin, and to Bethany. Between Gallatin and the Harrison County line, the route would be constructed with traffic relief funds, and the balance of the way with farm-to-market roads funds.

The surface was to be gravel and the cost through the Daviess County area would be approximately a half a million dollars. The 1933 projects agreed upon for the county would be as follows:

(1) Construction of a concrete payment 4.4 miles long aside the present nine foot payment of Route 6 between Gallatin and Jamesport at an estimated cost of $78,000.

(2) Construct an oil mat surface, five miles long on Route 6, from Gallatin east, at an estimated cost of $5,000.

(3) Grade and surface with gravel 15.3 miles on Route 13 from Gallatin north to Harrison County line at an estimated cost of $180,000.

(4) Grade and surface with gravel 10 miles from Gallatin south to Caldwell County line at an estimated cost of $160,000.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Relief Rolls in Daviess County

A Relief Program started in September, 1932, grew rapidly. By January 1935, Daviess County alone paid out over $71,000 for relief purposes. At this time the county had over 1,600 people either partially or wholly on relief.

A Relief Program started in September, 1932, grew rapidly. By January 1935, Daviess County alone paid out over $71,000 for relief purposes. At this time the county had over 1,600 people either partially or wholly on relief.

In the 28-month period of the program, the county distributed not only cash assistance but also such things as 180 blankets and much edible food — 31,245 pounds of flour, 15,660 pounds of smoked pork, 9,930 pounds of salt pork, 1,800 pounds of butter, 1,000 poudns of fresh beef, 3,360 cans of canned beef, 5,100 pounds of lard, 9,500 pounds of potatoes, 780-dozen eggs, 60 sacks of oranges and 1,300 packages of cereal.

Many people in Daviess County had made applications for old age assistance which was not a pension. The applicants were asked to prove their ages by such things as their Bibles, marriage certificates and other credentials. One of the restrictions in the law was that no pension was to be paid to any individual owning property valued at $1,500 or to couples owning joint property valued at $2,000.

The number of people who had applied for the pension by 1936 was 210. The oldest person to apply was a lady 92 years of age. The pension bill called for a maximum pension payment of $30 a month to single persons and $45 a month to married couples who reached the age of 70.

From the period from February 1936 to July 1, 1937, approximately $149,000,000 had been spent by the government to aid the elderly people of our nation. The average pension check varied from place to place. The following example gives us an idea of the average Old Age Pensions from each individual recipient: Daviess County, $14; State of Missouri, $11.43; and for combined federal, state, and local, $18. A Jameson man  received the first old age pension in Daviess County in1935 bearing the amount of seven dollars.

By 1935, an investigation found that many people had found jobs, but were still on the relief rolls. Other families had one working member while the rest of the family was on relief. Consequently, government stipulations were added to the relief rolls since so many people had applied for some type of relief.

For example, people who drove cars were no longer eligible for relief. Some people were coming to the relief headquarters in cars better than the average citizen could afford. It was thought that if people could operate a car, they shouldn’t be eligible for relief.

Another stipulation was people who owned dogs were no longer eligible for relief. It was believed it was too expensive to own dogs; instead, the money should be used to help buy the family’s food.

With the exception of cripple and handicapped people, people were now being required to work out their relief checks instead of getting them as charity.

Men could do such things as mixing grasshopper poison or working on the streets. Women could work in the community gardens where the foodstuff that was produced would be canned and used for school lunches and served to the children the following winter. In some instances, the women could clean the town’s churches.

A poll was made of over 20 men concerning the subject. Only one objected to it, 19 were highly in favor of it, the last said it didn’t make any difference to him just as long as he got something to eat and a place to stay.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Drought Heightens Demand for Relief Gardens

In 1934, the government established three types of relief gardens to help feed the hungry people. The demand for these gardens were expected to exceed any year thus far with 60,000 gardens to be planted in the Missouri, including some in Daviess County.

In 1934, the government established three types of relief gardens to help feed the hungry people. The demand for these gardens were expected to exceed any year thus far with 60,000 gardens to be planted in the Missouri, including some in Daviess County.

It was hoped the gardens would both provide fresh garden products for 250,000 needy Missourians, as well as build up the moral of the workers and their families. The three types of gardens were small family gardens, group gardens, and community gardens.

The community gardens involved a large acreage which was worked and the workers paid on a work relief basis. The group gardens were planned for cities and communities where ground for gardens were not available and where a large tract could be divided into 100 to 150 plots of about 3,000 sq.ft. – approximately the area of a garden 100’x30′ – for a family. Canning projects were also planned for the group and the community gardens.

The City of Pattonsburg was granted permission from the relief headquarters to dig a well to try to save their garden. The demand for the garden products would be great because at this time 37 more counties, including Daviess County, had just been listed as having acute water shortages.

These new additions made 61 counties in the state to be placed in line for full participation in the government’s program to relieve suffering brought about by water deficiency.

In 1934, the government established three types of relief gardens to help feed the hungry people. They were:

1. County work project tracts; laborers were paid hourly wages

2. Local community projects were sponsored in return, or for exchange of the garden produce.

3. Cooperative projects worked by people from the relief rolls who divided the harvest proportionately to the number of hours they worked each week.

In spite of the drought, relief gardens produced many tons of food which in turn required canning centers to be established to can the products which were grown. In turn, the canned vegetables were distributed to relief clients.

In the month of November 1934, nearly 1,200 people from 300 families were given food in Daviess County due to the Federal and State relief aid.

The foodstuff was distributed three days per week at three county points – namely Gallatin, Jamesport, and Pattonsburg. Typical portions were: 10 pounds of sugar; one can of pears; one can of beef broth; one and one-half pounds of canned beef; one package of rice. Sometimes butter and other foods were given, and there was always plenty of flour.

In July 1934, the government came out with a program in which an estimated 60,000 home gardens would be established in Missouri in hopes they’d provide food for 250,000 people. Daviess County towns, as well as nearby towns, had many home gardens or relief gardens.

Gallatin was one of the local towns that established a cannery to process the vegetables.

The relief office at Braymer in Caldwell County ran short of foodstuff at one time and over 3,000 cans of pears were shipped from the Gallatin exchange. At that time, Gallatin had over 80,000 cans of pears to be given away.

Most of the food was state grown and state purchased and was to be used in Missouri only.

Gallatin Democrat: “Families May Keep All Vegetables Raised,” State Buys 53 Carloads of Tin Cans” 1934, “Jamesport Garden Best In Daviess County” 7/5/34, “Plans 60,000 Home Gardens in State” — Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

State Garden Programs/Canneries

Another objective of the State Garden Programs was to bolster up morale by creation of productive work. There were three types of gardens:

Another objective of the State Garden Programs was to bolster up morale by creation of productive work. There were three types of gardens:

1. The home garden – 250,000 people would receive food.

2. The group garden – A family would be given a small plot for their garden. These gardens were planned for cities and communities where ground for gardens is not available. The location had to be where a large tract could be divided into 100-150 plots of about 3,000 square feet for assignment to a family.

3. The community garden – a large acreage worked by men paid on work relief program.

Statewide, along with the relief gardens, approximately 200 canning centers were to be established. Among these, a relief canning center was established in Gallatin in July, 1934 which was said to be one of the best relief canning projects in the state in regard to canning equipment, etc.

The city council provided a room in the city hall for the canning room as well as furnishing the material to put the room in condition.

Women were to do the canning. The work was to be done on a 50/50 basis with one-half of the canned products going to the relief program and one-half going to the producer.

Anyone having a surplus of any garden product was asked to bring it to the center to be canned for a percentage of the finished product.

Canning from the gardens required a small charge for the cans which could be paid in exchange in labor.

Statewide, Missouri had a goal of 6,000,000 cans and more than 3,000 tons of vegetables to feed the needy. The food to be canned and stored would be raised in 75,000 home gardens and 3,000 acres of community gardens. The seeds and material were to be furnished free by the Missouri Relief and Reconstruction Commission. To implement the program the state purchased 53 carloads of tin cans.

Jamesport also raised relief gardens. The city rented a four acre tract of land of Harry Harrington in the west part of Jamesport. Members on the relief roll worked in the garden and were given script which was exchanged for food furnished by the government. The workers in the garden worked eight hour days at the rate of 25 cents per hour.

The city of Pattonsburg was short of water to use in watering their gardens. Upon their request, Jefferson City approved a grant to dig a well in order to save the gardens.

The canneries used to process vegetables would later be converted to process the drought cattle shipped to the markets.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)