Remembering Veterans

In 1950 a petition was circulating in Missouri for a bonus bill to be passed so veterans could be placed on the November ballot.

In 1950 a petition was circulating in Missouri for a bonus bill to be passed so veterans could be placed on the November ballot.

The petition stated the maximum bonuses to World War II veterans would be $400 for those who served within the U.S. and $500 for overseas veterans. Only those veterans who served between Sept. 16, 1940 and Sept. 2, 1945, would be eligible.

The petitions were distributed by representatives of the VFW posts at Tina, Chillicothe, Carrolton, Gallatin, Jamesport, Gilman City, Bethany and Pattonsburg. The petitions were simply a way to get the bonus bill on the ballot at the November election. People signing the petitions had to have resided in the state one year and in the county 60 days. If the bill passed, the bonuses would be derived from special taxes to be imposed on items in 10 categories, nine of which were listed as luxuries, and the 10th against corporations doing business in the State of Missouri.

The taxes used to raise the money would cease on the date the money had been raised. This bonus was completely separate from any federal bonus which might come in the future. To be placed on the ballot, they had to be signed by eight percent of the legal voters in each two-thirds of the congressional districts in the state and filed at the statehouse at least 120 days before the election.

In late May 1950, both the Gallatin and Pattonsburg veterans’ organizations and auxiliaries had memorial services at two different cemeteries. At Brown Cemetery in Gallatin more than 50 veterans and a score of their auxiliaries listened as a brief prayer was said and an American Legion post commander read a tribute to all war dead. A similar service was held at the Pattonsburg Cemetery. At each service, a firing squad of seven veterans fired three shots into the the air and standing at rest were color bearers, flag guard and members of the auxilary. Flowers were placed on veterans’ graves and a American flag was left as a grave marker in honor of each fallen soldier, It was the first time such a ceremony had been held at either cemetery since the close of world War II. Taking part in the services were veterans of the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force. More than 200 people attended the ceremonies.

At the election, more than 2,200 names were signed to 17 petitions passed among people in Daviess County urging them to vote for a veteran’s bonus for Missourians who were in the armed forces during the last world war. More than 850 of those names were signed in Gallatin alone.

At that time they had to have only eight percent of the voters in two-thirds of the counties of the state to get the measure before the legislature and they had more than the necessary number on the Daviess county petitions.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

1948: County Sends Relief

In 1948, a relief program was started called Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP). It began as a relief program for 43 war-stricken foreign countries. Daviess County also participated. The program was sponsored by American churches; however, there were many farm organizations, civic and service clubs, and countless other cooperating individuals that wanted to be included.

In 1948, a relief program was started called Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP). It began as a relief program for 43 war-stricken foreign countries. Daviess County also participated. The program was sponsored by American churches; however, there were many farm organizations, civic and service clubs, and countless other cooperating individuals that wanted to be included.

Contributions made to the program were distributed to those in need such as children, orphans, widows, the aged, those hospitalized, youth and pre-tubercular clinics.
Contributions in Daviess County were to be made in wheat, soybeans, or cash. The county’s quota was for two carloads of wheat or approximately 3,000 bushels, the equivalent in cash being $6,000.

The county committee suggested it would be better for them if the people contributed cash. The program was to be in force until every person in the county had been solicited. It was said concerning the crop donations that “we can raise a crop every year, but people die of starvation only once.”

It was believed there wasn’t a single group in the county that wouldn’t give if the members actually realized the starvation and disease that existed abroad at that time. With inflated prices, it was almost impossible for millions to purchase the very necessities of life. Approximately 90% of the people wanted to give the program a chance and were giving cash rather than grain.

The county quota of $6,000 was to be used by the national CROP office in Chicago to purchase wheat, soybeans, cotton or dried milk products to be sent to four overseas countries where there was the greatest need.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Labor Shortage in 1943

An act of Congress made a farm labor program possible for rural areas which included Daviess County. One step of the plan was for the Farm Security Administration to bring in south Missouri farm hands.

An act of Congress made a farm labor program possible for rural areas which included Daviess County. One step of the plan was for the Farm Security Administration to bring in south Missouri farm hands.

In 1943, nine workers were brought to Daviess County. But it wasn’t a satisfactory arrangement to many because the workers didn’t have previous farm experience and didn’t know how to do things.

Still, it was believed full-time work was critical as the time for preparing the ground, haying, planting, etc., neared.

The school’s summer months would provide some farm labor. Volunteers also were available to help with the labor shortage. Several businessmen went to the farmer’s fields in order to prepare the ground for planting and seeding. One man worked 28 hours which was almost equivalent to three, eight hour days. Other store owners went and helped three and four hours at a time.

The government started a farm department designed to keep dairy, livestock and poultry farmers working. The department did this through draft deferment, wage stabilization and banning employment in other work. Some of the objectives were:

1. Local draft boards would grant occupational deferment to necessary men on essential dairy, livestock and poultry farms. The agreement would be withdrawn if they ceased to perform the work for which it was granted.

2. The army and navy would refrain from recruiting such workers or accepting them for voluntary enlistment.

3. All other employers would refrain from hiring skilled workers who’d been engaged in these three types of farm production.

4. The agricultural department would move toward stabilizing wages on dairy, livestock and poultry farms with a view to assisting those farmers in securing and maintaining an adequate supply of labor.

5. The department would take necessary steps to control the sale of dairy cows for slaughter so as to check a trend which was threatening to reduce dairy production.

In addition, the program for building dairy, livestock and poultry production included plans for aiding producers in building up livestock, training unskilled workers, buying or renting more productive farms, and job placement service for unskilled farm operators and laborers along with aid in transporting them to farms where they were needed most.

Another factor of the labor shortage occurred when the men and boys who’d served their time in the war returned home to find there weren’t any jobs for them to do.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Teacher Shortage During World War II

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

Although it was nearing the end of the school year, the state had barely enough teachers to operate. Predictions were that there would be an even greater loss of teachers the following year.
The state’s Department of Education was working with the local superintendents in solving the problem. Some of their suggestions were:

1. Dropping the bars which many school districts had erected against employment of married women.

2. Urging retired teachers to return and making it easier for them to renew their certificates.

3. Closing small non-essential schools with their small enrollments and sending the pupils to nearby schools.

4. Dropping some special courses to permit reduction of staffs in larger school systems.

5. To make it easier for teachers to renew teaching certificates the state colleges offered special summer extension and correspondence courses and the state department issued special one-year certificates.

A later survey revealed 1,765 vacancies in 9,000 schools in the state, exclusive of Kansas City and St. Louis. Further plans to alleviate the situation were the issuing of special emergency teaching certificates to people with two years of college work and the combination of some school districts. Some 700 districts had been merged so teacher’s could utilize the same materials.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Farm Deferments During World War II

In the early 1940s there was a shortage of farm workers and many people stated that replacing these workers was hard to do.

In the early 1940s there was a shortage of farm workers and many people stated that replacing these workers was hard to do.

Thousands of our men took jobs in shipyards and airplane factories thinking they could be exempt from going to war and seek deferment because they had essential operations. However, many of the “higher ups” were under the impression these workers could be replaced far easier than the farmers and their “expertise.” These men played a vital part in the army by furnishing the “bread and butter” for the people.

Some guidelines for deferment for farmers were:

1. A farmer who resided on his farm and operated it alone was required to have at least eight milk cows.

2. If both a farmer and his son lived on the farm together, 16 animal units were required for the man to obtain deferment.

3. By Feb. 12, 1943, in order to get deferment, the farmer had to raise at least 10 animal units.

4. By May 12, 1943, the farmer had to have at least 12 animal units. Feed for the stock had to be produced on the farm where the resident lived.

Since there was a variety of different types of animals on different types of farms, guidelines were often flexible. For example:

For one milk cow there had to be three beef cows; or four two-year-old steers; or four feed lot cattle; or 16 ewes; or 80 feed lot lambs; or flock of 75 hens; or 250 chickens raised; or 500 broilers; or 40 turkeys raised; or nine hogs raised. Breeding herd was not considered at all.

A typical example if a farmer lived on a farm alone, and had the following stock, he would meet the requirement of eight animal units and would be entitled to deferment: 2 milk cows…2; 18 hogs raised…2; flock of 150 hens…2; raise 250 chickens…1; 16 ewes…1; Total animal units = 8.

By May 1943, there was desperate need for farm workers as farming season approached and seed bed preparation and planting was needed and past due because of the wet weather. Year-round farm hands and seasonal workers could be secured from other sections of the state by making application at the county office or with the volunteer workers in the towns.

Volunteer workers were also needed to fill requests and place workers in as many cases as possible. Also available for summer jobs were the high school and college students.

———————————-

Do you remember….

*when service stations filled your gas tank for you, checked the oil and the air in your car’s tires, and washed the windshield

*when ice was sold in large cubes for the ice boxes

*when grocery stores delivered groceries to your home

*when you used red and green mills to pay sales tax

*when farmers took eggs to town in 36-dozen wooden cases

*when farmers purchased baby chicks in the spring and raised them in the brooder house

*when many farmers took their grain to the elevator in their pickups and wagons

*when you couldn’t go to town when the roads were muddy without putting chains on your car

*when cars had mud flaps and running boards

*when hogs were found on most small farms and were called “mortgage breakers.”

*when soot had to be cleaned from the flues

*when vinegar was shipped in large barrels and used to fill the containers the people brought in

*when flour was sold in cloth bags and women used the empty sacks to make a dress, shirt, etc.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Meat Rationing Necessary on the Home Front

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

Civilians would have available only a little more than half of the amount they had consumed in recent years. Everyone wouldn’t get as much of every kind of food as they wanted and their diets might not be as pleasant to eat, but there would still be enough for everyone to have a healthy and adequate diet.

On March 28, 1943, the O.P.A. (Office of Price Administration) became involved in the rationing of meats, edible fats and oils (including butter) cheese and canned food. From then on, a War Ration Book No. 2 had to be used.

In the first month, each card holder, regardless of age, would have a basic allotment of 16 points a week to spend. If all the points weren’t used in the same week, they could be held a week or longer.

The B., C., D. and E. Red stamps became valid in alphabetical order. As each series of red stamps became valid they could be used with complete freedom of choice to buy any one of the rationed products.

The new program permitted the dealer to give change in ration stamps, using only one-point stamps. Surrender of stamps had to be given in the presence of the merchant, clerk or deliveryman.

Some items covered were: 1. All fresh, frozen, cured meats and meat products derived from beef, veal, lamb, mutton and pork, as well as variety meats such as sausages, canned fish and canned shellfish. 2. The most important natural and processed cheeses and their derivatives, but not the cottage type and cream cheeses. 3. Most edible fats and oils, including butter, lard, margarine, shortening, salad oils and cooking oils.

All restaurants, hotels and other “institutional users” were allowed supplies of the rationed foods on the same basis that would reduce their use to approximately the same level as that of the private individual who ate at home.

None of the rationed foods could be used in the manufacture of dog foods.

Point values for the entire list of the rationed foods were to be posted just as if they were canned goods. There would be approximately 150 meat items with about 60 types and cuts made monthly as well as a separate chart for each store.

The new plan didn’t place any restrictions on any of the foods raised by the farmers if they were used for themselves. Farmers and their families were given a full quota of points. If a farmer sold any of his home-produced meat, butter, or other rationed foods, he had to collect ration stamps, checks or certificates when making a sale and surrender the collected points to the OPA.

All county livestock slaughterers, butchers and resident farm slaughterers who sold meat after April 1, 1943, had to obtain a permit from the local USDA War Board. Farm slaughterers included all individual killing and selling of any meat. If they slaughtered exclusively for home consumption on the farm they weren’t covered by the order.

Livestock dealers and agents were required to register and obtain permits partly for the reason of stamping out black markets, providing adequate meat supplies for military and lend-lease needs, and to guarantee sufficient coupons issued by OPA.

Each individual was required to show on his application for a permit the number of each type of livestock which he slaughtered in 1941 and the total live weight of the livestock. Quotas were the applicant’s choice of (1) the number of livestock which he slaughtered in the corresponding period in 1941; or (2) the total live weight of the animals which he butchered and sold during the base period.

Any farm slaughterer who applied for a permit and was unable to furnish data showing his slaughter in 1941 received his choice of (1) 300 lbs. of meat; or (2) the meat from three animals including not more than one head of cattle. Anyone who didn’t obtain his permit before April 1 was required to suspend operation until the proper permit was obtained.

In early 1944, the government issued red and blue ration tokens for buying meat and some types of processed products. Each token was worth 10 points each. Blue tokens were to be used when the price of the processed food was less than 10 points. Red tokens were to used for meat purchases.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Gallatin’s Problem with Homes for Returning Vets

The ending of World War II was the beginning of a new set of problems for Gallatin veterans. The vets were coming “home,” but there wasn’t any “home” for them to return to. A Gallatin survey revealed there were at least 25 new houses needed since there weren’t any vacant houses nor rooms to rent.

The ending of World War II was the beginning of a new set of problems for Gallatin veterans. The vets were coming “home,” but there wasn’t any “home” for them to return to. A Gallatin survey revealed there were at least 25 new houses needed since there weren’t any vacant houses nor rooms to rent.

The Gallatin Rotary Club passed a resolution backing a building program for the purpose of alleviating the housing shortage and also to curb inflation of real estate values.

The problem came to light when a man went to buy a permit to build in the city. He found a building priority for a home was impossible to obtain unless the town in which he resided had a set building quota. Gallatin didn’t have any such quota.

Building quotas were based on each particular town and an investigation of Gallatin revealed several factors had to be resolved before a quota could be set. A few of these factors were:

1. There were eight or more families without places to live and several others were inadequately housed

2. Property values had inflated from 100% to 300%

3. Many retired farmers were moving to town

4. Several returning veterans had expressed wanting to live in Gallatin.

A proposal was set up by the FPHA (Federal Public Housing Authority) stating they’d furnish pre-fabricated houses of a war-housing type and ship the parts to Gallatin for assembly. The housing units would remain federally owned. They would be four, five, or six bedroom homes and modern in every way.

Only discharged veterans or families of servicemen were eligible to apply for the accommodations. Before applications could be made for the temporary housing, an estimate of community needs had to be made. All veterans and servicemen’s families who wanted the accommodations were urged to sign up for them. The number of houses to be asked for depended upon the number of people interested in securing this type of housing.

In January 1946, Gallatin made application for 15 temporary family units to be occupied by discharged veterans and the families of servicemen. Additional units were to be ordered if the houses were being utilized and proved to be satisfactory. The government would furnish pre-fabricated war-housing type dwellings delivered prepaid by the city. The cost of a site and connecting the utilities would be paid to the city. The rent, at a very nominal cost of $22 a month, was to be charged to the veterans and families.

The application was turned down because the quota for the houses had been exhausted. Both the project requested and the number size of the housing administration was too small. They’d substitute 10 trailers. In February, 1946, 10 family trailers were ordered and were to be of two sizes, 7′ x 22′ one bedroom units and three 22′ x 22′ bedroom units. Each trailer had their water and electricity. The trailers would be allotted to the applicants in the order the requests were received.

Dockery Park was chosen for the site because there’d be less work and expense. There’d be little grading and sodding to be done, sidewalks and gavel driveways were already built and present light and water facilities were nearby. Rent from the trailers would go to the FPHA after the expenses of maintenance were deducted. FPHA retained the title to the buildings. Families of servicemen and veterans were the only eligible tenants of the trailers. Also included were men seeking accommodation so they could bring their families stationed outside the locality.

Nearing the end of February, Gallatin was assured of its trailer colony housing project. The FPHA would provide the materials and the labor for the construction of two baths and laundry buildings at the trailer site. The building would be 29 ˝’ x 23′ and would cost $8,300. The project had been turned down earlier by the city officials due to the scarcity of materials and labor.

In May 1946, the government agreed to relieve the city of any responsibility in building construction. The bath and laundry building was approved for the colony. Under the proposal the city would sign a contract with the housing authority to build the structure, with the government agency paying the bill. The city was to hire the labor, buy the material, and supervise the construction. The building was to be centrally located in the trailer colony.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

World War II Scrap Metal Drives

In 1942, there was a big demand for scrap metal materials for the fighting of World War II. On Oct. 9, 1942, there was big scrap metal drive in Daviess County.

In 1942, there was a big demand for scrap metal materials for the fighting of World War II. On Oct. 9, 1942, there was big scrap metal drive in Daviess County.

It was estimated that 1.5 million tons of scrap lay useless on U.S. farms. Enough to build 139 modern battleships for the navy! If the average farm generated 125 pounds to be mixed with other materials, each farm could possibly make a 500 pound aerial bomb. If the farmers banned their collection and accumulated 36,000 pounds there would be enough scrap iron to build one 27-ton tank.

All the scarp was important: One old shovel would make four hand grenades; one old disc would provide scrap steel for 210 semi-automatic light carbines; one old broken plow would help make 100 75mm armor piercing projectiles; one useless old tire would provide enough rubber for 12 gas masks; old lawn mowers, flat irons, broken tools would all count; 125 pounds of rusty metal, mixed with other materials, was enough to make a 500 pound aerial bomb; an old hand corn sheller would make three one-inch shells.

The Daviess County USDA war board took the responsibility to encourage the collection of scrap metal from all the local farms. The metal would be taken to the smelters and blast furnaces to be remade. The need for it was vital because many steel plants throughout the country had been slowed down or had to suspend operations because of the lack of material.

On Oct. 9, plans were made for every school and every business in the county to close and to work out their plans such as arranging for trucks, how to collect the scrap, where to sell it, what to do with the money, etc.

The schools and town salvage committees took the lead in the collection. Some people donated their trucks for the project. However, the scrap had to be brought to them as they didn’t have time to go from farm to farm and pick up the metal.

This enabled every man, woman and child to have an opportunity to help. Four Gallatin girls helped in a big way when they removed an entire iron pump from a well in south Gallatin which had been donated. People were willing to help as there were approximately 500 Daviess County boys fighting in the U.S. Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force.

Nearly 300 tons of scrap metal was collected. In Gallatin the scrap was hauled to the Whitfield salvage dump and the Hacker junk yard. Approximately 270 tons of scrap was purchased in the county on scrap day. Including what had been purchased prior to “scrap day” brought the county 457 tons.

Another important campaign was the collection of two million victory keys. The goal was to raise 12,000,000 pounds of metal. The average key contained about 80% nickel silver which was desperately needed by the Navy, particularly the Yale and Corbin type keys. These keys could be deposited in Gallatin stores, namely the Merrigan Grocery, Davis Drug Co., King’s Drug Store, the high school and the Gallatin Publishing Co.

Every penny over the actual cost of the campaign was given to the boys in the service through their United States Organization (USO).

————————

Throughtout the war years after the war started, a temporary freeze was put on farm machinery because of the scrap iron shortage. There were exceptions to the rule, but a farmer had to present a valid reason why he needed new equipment; why he was unable to repair his present equipment; why he could not purchase or rent used machinery; or why he could not use custom or exchange work. The purchaser also had to present a satisfactory reason for changing from horse power to motor power. If refused, he could appeal to the state USDA board.

There was a shortage of car manufacturing and new cars were hard to come by which caused a safety hazzard. Motorists were driving older cars which were harder to keep safe because of the shortage of spare parts and skilled mechanics. Car tires were used beyond their safely point. Many cars which had been discarded as unfit for service were back on the road.

On Oct. 9, 1942, a big scrap drive took place in Daviess County. All the county schools and stores closed in order for every man, woman and child to be able to participate. Each county town and each school district worked out a plan for such things as how to collect the scrap, where to sell it, what to do with the money, etc.

The courthouse was chosen as the central point and committees went out in four directions. Each section was appointed a captain and each section was to pile their scraps where it could be seen.
Another important nationwide campaign was the collection of keys. Two million victory key kans and two million placards were distributed throughout every U.S. city. The goal was to raise 12,000,000 pounds of metal. The average key contained 80% nickel silver which was vital to the navy.

There were five places to deposit the keys in Gallatin: Merrigan Grocery, Davis Drug Co., Kings Drug Store, Gallatin Publishing Company, and the high school.

On scrap day, Gallatin and the community collected 100 tons of scrap and the county gathered 275 tons.

The scrap had to be sorted, graded, prepared, packed and placed in railroad lots for loading onto freight cars. If there wasn’t enough material of one grade in a county to make a carload, it became necessary to combine grades from several neighboring counties.

In early October, it was announced that any county that made a per capita collection of 100 pounds or more of scrap from any or all sources during the period of Sept. 1 to Oct. 31, would receive a Victory Salvage Pennant to fly from the flagpole in the courthouse yard.

By early December Gallatin reached its 900 ton goal. More scrap iron was still to be found. The government dedicated the remaining years of 1942 to an extended scrap hunt. Salvage committees were instructed to continue to make available to farmers all the transportation facilities and manpower needed.

In April, 1943, an all out effort was made to gather tin cans. They were piled separately from the other trash and city trucks picked them up.

Copper was the most important and the most needed of all metals for war production. One hundred pounds of tin cans was equal in worth to one pound of copper.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Food Shortages During & After World War II

In 1943, women on 175 Daviess County farms were doing more work than ever. Many were going to work in the fields in addition to carrying on what had always been the women’s share of the farm work such as milking, taking care of the chickens and gardening.

In 1943, women on 175 Daviess County farms were doing more work than ever. Many were going to work in the fields in addition to carrying on what had always been the women’s share of the farm work such as milking, taking care of the chickens and gardening.

They started a plan as to what other things they could do such as:

1. To grow a garden that would produce enough food to feed the family the year around.

2. To can 100 to 200 quarts of food and store six to 10 bushels of potatoes and other storable food.

3. To use home-produced foods in well-prepared meals which met the requirement for good health.

4. To buy as little as possible from commercial food supplies, leaving it for the armed forces and those that couldn’t produce their own.

5. To take care of equipment and supplies to extend their usefulness and prevent need for replacement.

6. To adjust homemaking practices and the use of time and energy so the family’s welfare wasn’t neglected while at the same time making possible the production of more of the foods essential to war needs.

There were drawbacks in regard to the canning, as sugar was rationed at five pounds, but a new ration stamp for an extra 10 pounds would soon be sent to those who would do the extra canning.

After World War II had ended, there was still a food shortage at home and abroad. Mrs. Truman’s instructions at the White House were: wheatless day every Monday; use wheat food only at breakfast on other days; no bread served at dinner.

There were nine ways in which Daviess County homemakers could save critically needed foods, including:

1. Cutting down on the waste of bread in every way possible. Estimates indicated one slice out of every loaf of bread went into the garbage can.

2. Reducing the amount of bread used at each meal through substitutes such as potatoes and oat cereals. Fruit could be used instead of cake and pastries for desserts.

3. Using alternate foods and using less wheat cereals for breakfast.

4. Saving cooking fats by making more extensive use of meat drippings for cooking and seasoning food.

5. Holding down the number of fried foods that were served.

6. Saving and reusing fats and oils for cooking purposes.

7. Holding bacon grease for cooking and rendering out excess fats or meats.

8. All fats that couldn’t be reused could be salvaged and turned in at the butcher’s shop or grocery store.

9. Using less oil and salad dressing.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Meat Rationing during World War II

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

Civilians would have available only a little more than half of the amount they had consumed in recent years. Everyone wouldn’t get as much of every kind of food as they wanted and their diets might not be as pleasant to eat, but there’d still be enough for everyone to have a healthy and adequate diet.

On March 28, 1943, the O.P.A. (Office of Price Administration) became involved in the rationing of meats, edible fats and oils (including butter), cheeses and canned food. From then on, a War Ration Book No. 2 had to be used.

In the first month, each card holder, regardless of age, would have a basic allotment of 16 points a week to spend. If all the points weren’t used in the same week, they could be held a week or longer. The B.C.D. and E. red stamps became valid in alphabetical order. As such series of red stamps became valid they could be used with complete freedom of choice to buy any one of the rationed products. The new program permitted the dealer to give change in ration stamps, using only 1-point stamps. Surrender of stamps had to be given in the presence of the merchant, clerk or deliveryman.

Some items covered were: (1) All fresh, frozen, cured meats and meat products derived from beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork, as well as variety meats such as sausages, canned fish and canned shellfish. (2) The most important natural and processed cheeses and their derivatives, but not the cottage type and cream cheeses. (3) Most edible fats and oils, including butter, lard, margarine, shortening, salad oils and cooking oils.

All restaurants, hotels and other “institutional users” were to be allowed supplies of the rationed foods on the same basis that would reduce their use to approximately the same level as that of the private individual who ate at home. None of the rationed foods could be used in the manufacture of dog foods.

Point values for the entire list of the rationed foods were to be posted just as if they were canned goods. There would be approximately 150 meat items with about 60 types and cuts made monthly as well as a separate chart for each store.

The new plan didn’t place any restriction on any of the foods raised by the farmers if they were used for themselves. Farmers and their families were given a full quota of points. If a farmer sold any of his home-produced meat, butter, or other rationed foods, he had to collect ration stamps, checks or certificates when making a sale and surrender the collected points to the OPA.

All county livestock slaughterers, butchers and resident farm slaughterers who sold meat after April 1, 1943, had to obtain a permit from the local USDA War Board. Farm slaughterers included all individual killing and selling any meat. If they slaughtered exclusively for home consumption on their farms they weren’t covered by the order. Livestock dealers and agents were required to register and obtain permits partly for the reason of stamping out black markets, providing adequate meat supplies for military and lend-lease needs, and to guarantee sufficient coupons issued by OPA.

Each individual was required to show on his application for a permit the number of each type of livestock which he slaughtered in 1941 and the total live weight of the livestock. Quotas were the applicant’s choice of (1) the number of livestock which he slaughtered in the corresponding period in 1941; or (2) the total live weight of the animals which he butchered and sold during the base period.

Any farm slaughtered who applied for a permit and was unable to furnish data showing his slaughter in 1941 received his choice of (1) 300 pounds of meat; or (2) the meat from three animals including not more than one head of cattle. Anyone who didn’t obtain his permit before April 1 was required to suspend operation until the proper permit was obtained.

In early 1944, the government issued red and blue ration tokens for buying meat and some types of processed products. Each token was worth 10 points each. Blue tokens were to be used when the prices of the processed food was less than 10 points. Red tokens were to be used for meat purchases.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Fuel Shortage in the mid-1940s

Due to World War II, fuel was in short supply on the home front. Prior to the winter months and anticipating a shortage, people were urged to start preparing for it to avoid being “left out in the cold.” This included wood, fuel oil and coal.

Due to World War II, fuel was in short supply on the home front. Prior to the winter months and anticipating a shortage, people were urged to start preparing for it to avoid being “left out in the cold.” This included wood, fuel oil and coal.

Those people who heated with fuel oil were urged to get their storage tanks filled as quickly as they could. If these tanks weren’t filled then, fuel might not be available when it was needed. Tank cars were being diverted to transport a large part of the Navy’s fuel oil to the West Coast, leaving less overland transportation available for civilian needs. Still, in these summer months, supplies were greater and would allow for more efficient delivery than when the product was needed the worst.

The previous winter, about 3,000 homes had been heated with fuel oil. Now, in these mid-summer months many of the people had already mailed applications to the War Price and Rationing Boards. The boards urged the people to get their fuel allocations while transportation was more readily available and there was still time to repair their old and their current equipment. Many people had followed suit and were starting to get their coupon books for their fuel allotment.

Still, many were using the primitive way by heating with wood. Many people had woodlands with plenty of wood for their use and there wasn’t any reason they couldn’t have fuel. People were urged to share their wood with others who didn’t have an adequate supply. Everyone didn’t cooperate; many had woodlands with plenty of firewood and refused to share it with those who were in dire need even though some of it was laying on the ground rotting. Others were profiteering from the wood supply even though it was greatly discouraged.

Likewise, those who used coal were also encouraged to lay in their winter supply. One factor was the space because neither the mines nor the local dealers had the capacity to store large amounts of coal. If the transportation process was slowed down in the cold months, these minimal amounts would soon be depleted and new shipments could be delayed creating another shortage.

At that time it was predicted transportation facilities were going to be tighter than ever before. It was imperative that the coal flow from the mines to the dealer’s supplies and the consumer’s bins. There couldn’t be any working time lost by the coal mines which were operating with the smallest crews and task force.

Just the mining and the preparing fuel weren’t entirely caused by the shortage of the fuel. Other factors entered in, such as the shortage of men to work the mines and transport the product because many of the men who had the jobs were now fighting overseas. Likewise, proper manufacturing could be hindered by the lack of machines in top quality.

The homeowners were also urged to take conservative measures by cleaning and repairing their present furnaces and heating equipment. They were also urged to install insulation and weather stripping.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Shoe Rationing in 1943

In 1943, shoes were rationed and had to be purchased with ration stamps. However, in order for the merchants to rid some of their odd and end pairs, a “shoe holiday” was established which lasted for two weeks from July 19 to July 31.

In 1943, shoes were rationed and had to be purchased with ration stamps. However, in order for the merchants to rid some of their odd and end pairs, a “shoe holiday” was established which lasted for two weeks from July 19 to July 31.

Some of its stipulations were the sale would only consist of a small percentage of each type to be sold. The dealer could sell only 1% of his stock of men’s dress shoes and men’s work shoes, 4% of womens’ shoes, 2% of misses, children and infant’s shoes and 2% of all other rationed footwear.

The sale price couldn’t be more than a 10% mark-up from the price paid by the dealer. If the price couldn’t be determined or if the shoes were made by the owner of the establishment, the selling price had to be at least 25% of his selling price on July 1, 1943. It was a way both the merchant and the customer could benefit by purchasing a few odds and ends, broken sizes, and any other problem shoes on the merchant’s shelves.

The shoes were to represent a fixed percentage of retailers’ stocks which were to be marked down and they had to be stamped with stickers bearing “OPA lot release” in any notice or advertisement. People were urged to turn in their old shoes, boots and soles.

The amendment also allowed mail order houses, wholesalers and manufacturers to move the same percentage of such shoes without a time limit, after July 19, but they had to apply to the district office for permission.

Other rules were more lenient concerning children’s shoes. Considering the fact children would outgrow their shoes, parents could apply to their board for special permission to buy additional shoes and if the parents could prove a need, they would probably be given extra stamps.

In a hardship case when a person couldn’t afford to buy a pair of shoes in addition to the regular pair option they were asked to apply for special coupons.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Tire Rationing in World War II

During World War II the government’s demand for rubber to use almost exclusively for defense purposes caused the need to ration tires on the home front. The Office of Price Administration (OPA) in Washington D.C. regulated the quota and the rules for tires and tubes issued to each county.

During World War II the government’s demand for rubber to use almost exclusively for defense purposes caused the need to ration tires on the home front. The Office of Price Administration (OPA) in Washington D.C. regulated the quota and the rules for tires and tubes issued to each county.

It became necessary to get a certificate when a tire was needed and purchased. The certificate had to be used for that month and couldn’t be carried over to the following month. In January 1942 Daviess County’s allotment was 12 car tires and innertubes and 25 truck tires and innertubes.
The OPA started the Tire Purchase Plan.

Under the plan gasoline rations would be denied to those with more than five passenger cars with more than five tires on each car. If a person had passenger tire trailers, they could have one tire for each running wheel without forfeiting the right to buy gasoline.

The procedure for purchasing new tires required several steps. First, the vehicle the tire was purchased for had to be inspected and an application form filled out. The form would be taken to Gallatin’s rationing board. The board would issue a necessary permit upon proof the tire was needed.

The dealer couldn’t sell a new tire or tube without the certificate. The old tire had to be sold in five days and the certificate had to be approved by the local board. Upon completion of the sale, the dealer could get a new replacement tire for wholesale purposes. The new tire couldn’t be used on any other piece of machinery or vehicle other than the one purchased for and violation of the law meant punishment by the federal government.

No other certificate could be issued unless it was for:

1. An ambulance;

2. Vehicles used specifically for fire fighting, professional services used by a physician, surgeon, visiting nurse or a veterinarian;

3. Vehicles used for fire fighting, police service to regulate laws exclusively relating to public health and safety, garbage disposal and other sanitary services, and mail service.

4. On vehicles with a capacity of 10 or more passengers for regular transportation, students and teachers, employees of any mining or construction work.

Due to the tire shortage of grade III tires, the government released two million usable tires. Some needed repair while others could be used in national emergencies without repair. Large orders were placed with the large company stores and exclusive tire dealers in the larger cities, but very few orders were received from the small dealers in the farming areas where the most critical tire shortage existed.

Local dealers were advised to urge framers to get their orders in quickly because of the high demand that might last 60 to 90 days. Any dealer could purchase from 25 to 100 of these tires for immediate delivery. An “O” would be branded on the sidewall and sold at a price not to exceed a dollar.

Some tires were later retread and recapped, but since the lack of crude rubber used in making the compound was limited it greatly curtailed any great supply. The process to obtain one of the tires was similar to that of purchasing a new one. No applicant would be granted to anyone who had more than one car or truck unless the tires on both machines were worn out.

By June 1943 the drive for scrap rubber had resulted in an accumulation large enough to meet the needs for months to come and the drive was discontinued.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Gas Shortage and Rationing by OPA

In the early 1940s, cars were coming on the scene and gas was utilized more and more. However, due to World War II, the military’s demand for gas caused a shortage on the home front.

In the early 1940s, cars were coming on the scene and gas was utilized more and more. However, due to World War II, the military’s demand for gas caused a shortage on the home front.

Gas companies were drawing on their reserves and using the oil faster than they were finding it.
The partial solution seemed to be to use what they had very sparingly. Gas rationing became necessary and coupons were needed to buy gas. The allotment allowed a person to buy four gallons at a time and it depended on the mileage used. Coupons were mailed to the motorists. The coupon’s expiration date was about 15 months after they’d been issued. The allotment was later changed to two gallons weekly.

Black markets for gas appeared and the ration boards tried to stop them. The boards offered a new plan, hoping to eliminate ration coupon thefts. Soon, when a motorist went to buy gas they were required to show all their gasoline coupons as proof that they were valid. If all the coupons weren’t endorsed, the investigator explained the endorser’s importance, which was a move against the black market.

Any dealers handling coupons that weren’t endorsed had to appear to the local war price and rationing board within 10 days to show that all their coupons had been endorsed. A copy of the notice was then forwarded to the ration board and any motorist failing to comply was to have a hearing for the purpose of revoking their gasoline ration.

The check of coupons in the Kansas City area comprised 51 counties in western Missouri and three counties in Kansas.

Rural areas were hurt to a greater degree than the urban areas by gas rationing because many farmers needed the fuel to power their tractors.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Sugar Rationing During the War Years

Just as the sugar rationing was being put in effect in 1942 during the war years, Daviess County had taken steps to prepare to hand out ration stamps and ration sugar when they got the “go” orders.

Just as the sugar rationing was being put in effect in 1942 during the war years, Daviess County had taken steps to prepare to hand out ration stamps and ration sugar when they got the “go” orders.

The supplies for the rationing were locked in a vault in the city clerk’s office. The supplies included 15,000 rationing books, 16,000 application blanks for books, and 16,000 instructional leaflets.
At the appointed time, these books had to be available for necessary distribution 24 hours a day. Only one member of the rationing board would be able to pass out the books.
Ration books were issued to each household for the eligible amount of sugar they’d receive. For example, a war stamp book No. 8 was issued for a 10 week period from Aug. 23 to Oct. 31, 1942, and was good for five pounds of sugar.

Later, there was a small change. The half pound per person per week was the same as the five pound per person for 10 weeks. This new change was more efficient as it was easier to divide the five pound purchase, which was packed in five, 10, and 25 pound bags that had been put up the previous fall before the sugar was rationed.

Sugar ration books issued to persons who had since died, entered the army, or had been absent from the country for a period of more than 30 days had to be returned to the local War Price and Ration Board which issued them.

To keep informed of the status of consumers in this area, members of the ration board were established. They kept in contact with the local draft board and county health authorities who had a record of deaths.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Veterans Offered Farm Training

On-the-job training offered veterans who want to learn to farm after WWII.

On-the-job training offered veterans who want to learn to farm after WWII.

As more veterans returned home, many didn’t have jobs and wanted to farm. Factory work and clerical work didn’t appeal to the boys who were raised on farms. To help solve this problem, the Missouri Department of Education, working in cooperation with the Veterans Administration and the state’s high schools, worked out a plan for the modification of “on-the-job” training. This combined school instruction and actual farm work to place the veteran on an even footing with skilled farmers in his own community.

The new plan was divided into three categories. The first plan was the “institutional program.” In this step, the veterans went to school to learn to be a farmer, just as he would go to school to learn about dentistry, law, or engineering. The students learned most of their training in an agricultural school, with off-campus inspection trips to supplement the education.

The second classification was when veterans trained for a position existing in the employer’s farm organization. Off-the-farm instruction of a supplementary nature was included. This plan held the employer responsible for the training. The veteran was trained to take over a certain phase of the farm operation, such as dairy supervisor or being in charge of the beef cattle.

The third classification was the comprehensive plan developed by the Department of Education, Veterans Administration, high schools and agriculture agencies, plus on-the-farm training. These phases were planned so that each supplemented the other. The responsibility for the entire course rested with the school. The school not only offered the classroom instruction, but it also helped with the on-the-farm phase of training.

The plan was broken down further into two subdivisions. One plan was designed for the veteran who could take the on-the-farm portion of his training on his own farm; the other plan was for a farm under his management. In each case the veteran was enrolled at the local school as an agricultural student.

Under all the training plans the veteran was allowed to receive monthly subsistence allowances from the government which enabled him to earn a living while learning the science of farming.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Scrap Paper Drive in War Effort

In 1945, clothing and wastepaper drives were necessary for the World War II defense. Clothing was desperately needed.

In 1945, clothing and wastepaper drives were necessary for the World War II defense. Clothing was desperately needed.

President Roosevelt stated that as many war victims had died from exposure and lack of clothing as had died from starvation. This could be solved to a small degree by people on the home front donating their unused clothing which could hopefully save lives or prevent suffering.

It was believed that almost every household in every town had scrap or unused clothing in their closets and attics. The national goal was five pounds of usable clothing from every man, woman and child in the nation.

It was thought Daviess County could reach the goal because it fell in the time when spring house cleaning was being done and unused clothing was being discarded.

In every town in the county there was someone appointed to head the campaign in that particular community. In Gallatin, the collection depot was located at the Red Cross surgical dressing room on the first floor of the courthouse. At a later date, arrangements were made to pick up the heavier bundles. A few of the garments asked to be donated were infant wear, shoes, knit clothes, blankets, etc.

Likewise, waste on unused paper was also needed for war products. Everyone was encouraged to scout around and find the paper products which would be gathered by veterans and boy scouts. A person was to call for a pickup or deliver them to the collecting station themselves. As a result, several truckloads were sent.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin