USN Capt. James A. Shreckengaust

Vietnam War veteran James A. Shreckengaust is among those from Daviess County achieving high military rank. The native of Pattonsburg (PHS Class of 1954) retired after 34 years as a captain in the United States Navy.

Although he had many assignments, Shreckengaust was most proud of being the commanding officer of the military sea lift command in the Indian Ocean and Executive Officer of the USS Oklahoma City, Seventh Fleet Flagship home ported in Yokosuka, Japan.

Shreckengaust received his Bachelors of Mechanical Engineering from the University of Missouri and his Master’s in Computer Systems Management from the Naval Post Graduate School.

He was born Sept. 12, 1937, to Ralph and Vera (Campbell) Shreckengaust in Daviess County. He married Shirlene Huntsberger on Dec. 23, 1962. The couple raised three daughters, Jill Simmons (Dennis), Virginia Beach, VA; Robyn Lakamsani (Vamsee), Livermore, CA; and Karen Hanley (Michael), Austin, TX.; and have four grandchildren, Alexandra and Katherine Simmons and Sarada and Hansa Lakamsani. His sister is Reva Lupfer, McFall, MO.

He died Wednesday, Feb. 26, 2014, at Heartland Regional Medical Center in St. Joseph, MO.

Commander James A. Shreckengaust, the commanding officer of the military sea lift command in the Indian Ocean and Executive Officer of the U.S.S Oklahoma City, Seventh Fleet Flagship home ported in Yokosuka, Japan. Shreckengaust, 76, of St. Joseph, MO, died on Feb. 26, 2014, at Heartland Regional Medical Center. He is buried at Leavenworth National Cemetery.

Distinguished Flying Cross to Capt. Jim Sears, Jr. for Heroism Against Taliban

Awarded for actions during the Global War on Terror

General Orders: Headquarters, U.S. Central Command Air Force (USCENTAF), Special Orders G-334 (August 21, 2002)

Distinguished Flying Cross

Action Date: January 20, 2002
Service: U.S. Air Force
Rank: Captain
Company: 18th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 2, 1926, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Flying Cross with Combat “V” to Captain James R. Sears, Jr., United States Air Force, for heroism and extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight as F-16CG flight lead, 18th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron on 20 January 2002.

Captain Sears distinguished himself as On Scene Commander for a downed CH-53 in a heavily defended area of Taliban control in Northern Afghanistan during Operation ENDURING FREEDOM. During the Combat Search and Rescue he organized, directed, and controlled a total of 13 aircraft including three Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, five helicopters, one C-130, two F-16s, and two F-18s. He rapidly developed a deconfliction plan that ensured the safety of all assets and allowed them to operate within a five nautical mile radius of the downed helicopter. After receiving the initial coordinates of the crash site he realized they were over one nautical mile off the actual location in heavily mountainous terrain.

After a diligent, methodical search of the area, Captain Sears was able to get his eyes on the site, provide a perfect talk-on for his wingman, and direct the other support assets to the crash site. Using on-board sensors, Captain Sears was quickly able to pass updated coordinates to the thousandth of a degree to command and control agencies without compromising the safety of the entire rescue operation. He expertly sanitized the 60 nautical mile ingress and egress route through enemy territory.

Captain Sears then executed the demanding task of rescue escort for two helicopters. This involved maintaining visual contact and constant coverage while flying over 300 knots faster and being 15,000 feet higher than the helicopters. Captain Sears, in conjunction with command and control assets, coordinated a plan to move three separate tankers close enough to the crash site to ensure constant command for the entire time on scene.

Captain Sears’ flawless flight leadership allowed him to intercept and visually identify a Red Cross aircraft flying in the vicinity of the downed helicopter, not identifiable by electronic means or talking to command and control assets, ensuring the safety of the entire rescue effort. Captain Sears passed off On Scene Commander duties to two United States Navy F-18s after 4.5 hours on scene.

Captain Sears’ tireless efforts and tremendous focus was unprecedented considering in his single-seat F-16 he flew more than 3500 miles, logged 11.1 hours, and ten air refuelings requiring more than 120,000 pounds of fuel to be onloaded through hostile territory. Captain Sears’ courage, superior airmanship, and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of personal danger were instrumental in accomplishing this hazardous mission and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the U.S. Air Force.

[Source: http://valor.militarytimes.com/recipient.php?recipientid=5557]

Honor Flight an Emotional Trip for Korean War Veteran Jim Edwards

When Korean War

veteran Jim Edwards of Jamesport and 55 other veterans aboard Honor Flight arrived in Washington, D.C., they were met by a crowd of people who applauded, shook their hands, and thanked them for their service.

“It was pretty emotional,” Jim said. “It was a long day and exhausting — but well worth it.”

The group had to be at the airport by 4 a.m. for the American Airlines flight. They left Kansas City at 6:30 a.m. on Nov. 3, 2016, and arrived back at 10:30 p.m. the same day.

Honor Flight Network is a non-profit organization created solely to honor America’s veterans for all their sacrifices. Honor Flight transports our heroes to Washington, D.C. to visit and reflect at the memorials dedicated to honor the service and sacrifices of themselves and their friends. Top priority is given to the senior veterans – World War II survivors, along with those other veterans who may be terminally ill.

Of Jim’s group of 55 veterans, 30 were in wheelchairs. Each veteran was to have a guardian who assisted them. Jim’s guardian was his daughter, Jill. Jill also assisted another veteran, Dean Weddle, 90, of Allendale, after Dean’s own guardian couldn’t make the trip.

After arriving at Reagan Airport, the group got on two tour buses led by a motorcycle cop who buzzed them through all the stoplights to the World War II memorial. There they saw the laying of the wreath ceremony. Next was the Korean and Vietnam and Lincoln Memorials. A group photo was taken at the Iwo Jima Memorial. Then they departed for Arlington National Cemetery to view the “Changing of the Guard” at the tomb of the unknown soldier. There are over 400,000 graves at Arlington. Lastly they viewed the Air Force Memorial, which is a fairy new addition. Jim said the tour bus drove by the Pentagon building and also the White House.

Jim is a veteran of the Korean War, having served from 1951-1955. He was an SK2 in the Navy, stationed in San Diego. He was in the service for nine months when he married his childhood sweetheart, Janene. Two of their four children were born in San Diego. Janene passed away 11 years ago and they lost a daughter.

Veteran Jim Edwards of Jamesport with pilot, Jared Williams

 

 

Jim did not know any of the other veterans on the Honor Flight. But he did know the pilot, Jared Williams, the son of a family friend from Jamesport. Jared’s grandfather was aboard a World War Two destroyer at Leyte Gulf, the second battle of the Philippine Sea and the largest naval battle in history. Jared was proud to display his grandfather’s honor flag in the window of the plane. Jim and Jill got some special treatment since they knew the pilot. They were ushered first on the airplane and got to sit in the cockpit for some pictures.

In Washington, D.C., Jim was also surprised and pleased that a grandson, Bryce Hughes, who works at an IRS building, came to the memorials to visit with him.

The group of veterans arrived back home at about 10:30 p.m.

“When we arrived in Kansas City, there were two- or three-hundred people lined up to greet us,” Jim said. “They cheered and banged drums and gave us lots of farewell hugs. I came back with videos, pictures, and wonderful memories.”

USAF Brig. Gen. Jim Sears Returns After Counterterrorism Command Overseas

Air Force Brig. Gen. Jim Sears, who commanded the 455th Air Expeditionary Wing (AEW) at Bagram Airfield in Afghanistan for the last 12 months, returned home to the United States on June 4, 2017.

The Gallatin Class of 1987 graduate took a military flight to Qatar, located next to Saudi Arabia and across from Iran in the Persian Gulf, then changed to a commercial flight to Miami to later arrive in San Antonio, TX, late on Sunday. The trip home took 27 hours.

Sears will continue his Air Force career as the Director of Intelligence, Operations, and Nuclear Integration, Headquarters Air Education and Training Command, Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph, TX.

Brig. Gen. Jim Sears on an F-16 while in counterterrorism duty in Afghanistan (2016)

The 455th AEW is considered as the premier counterterrorism air mission in Afghanistan. The wing’s operations enable the NATO Resolute Support mission to successfully train, advise, and assist the military and security forces of Afghanistan, while restricting and deterring the terrorist threat in the region.

During his time at Bagram Airfield, Brig. Gen. Sears’ leadership enabled 15,800 combat sorties, accumulating to 102,877 combat hours. This resulted in more than 1,369 kinetic strikes and 2,836 enemies killed in action.

These details were reported on the website of the U.S. Air Forces Central Command where Sears thanked his family for their sacrifice the last year. He also thanked the airmen who project airpower every day as he departed from command duty in Afghanistan.

“Commanding in combat truly has been the greatest honor in my career,” said Brig. Gen. Sears.

“There are U.S. and coalition forces that were able to go back and hug their families because airmen were there when they needed them. Because of [455th AEW] airmen like you, there are fewer terrorists in the world today. I am tremendously proud of what you do every day to protect America.

“Thank you for your service and I thank your families for their sacrifices today and every day, so we can successfully conduct counterterrorism operations and enable the train, advise, and assist campaign with our Afghan partners. America is safer because of you.”

Sears’ replacement, Brig. Gen. Craig Baker, took command of the 455th Air Expeditionary Wing during a change of command ceremony June 3, 2017, at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan. Baker is a command pilot with more than 2,600 flying hours and has commanded at the Squadron and Wing level.

In 2015 USAF Col. James R. Sears, Jr., was nominated for appointment to the grade of brigadier general as announced by U.S. Secretary of Defense Ash Carter. At that time Sears was serving as the director for assignments and air expeditionary force operations, Air Force Personnel Center, Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph, TX.

This promotion is one of many during a distinguished military career.

Prior to his current assignment Sears was the 14th Flying Training Wing Commander where he led more than 3,000 Airmen and civilians in conducting Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training for US Air Force and allied officers. The wing possessed the largest fleet of aircraft in the Air Force inventory with 222 aircraft and produced more than one-third of all USAF pilots.

Colonel Sears was commissioned in 1991 as a graduate from the United States Air Force Academy. He has commanded at multiple levels and held staff assignments at Pacific Air Forces and U.S. European Command. He is a command pilot with over 3,200 flight hours and operational experience from C-130 low level special operations to every conventional mission in the F-16.

In 2003 he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for heroism after successfully leading an 11.3 hour combat search and rescue that resulted in the safe recovery of seven US Marines in a downed helicopter in Afghanistan.

Brig. Gen. Jim Sears, Jr., with father, Jim Sears, Sr.

Brig. Gen. Sears and his wife, Vikki, have two daughters. His father, Jim Sr., and wife Gina, live in Arizona. The elder Sears owned and operated Pill Box Pharmacy, once located on the east side of the Gallatin business square, for several years.

The following career milestones were current for Brig. Gen. Jim Sears, Jr., as of August, 2014:

EDUCATION

  • 1991 Bachelor of Science in Political Science, United States Air Force Academy 1997 Master of Arts in Human Resource Development, Webster University
  • 1998 Squadron Officer School, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.
  • 2003 Air Command and Staff College, by correspondence
  • 2005 Air War College, by correspondence
  • 2006 Master of Science in Joint Campaign Planning and Strategy, Joint Advanced Warfighting School, National Defense University
  • 2011 Leadership Development Program, Center for Creative Leadership
  • 2012 Executive Leadership Development Program, Darden School of Business, University of VirginiaASSIGNMENTS
  • August 1991 – September 1992, Student, Undergraduate Pilot Training, Williams AFB, Ariz.
  • October 1992 – January 1993, Student, C-130 Replacement Training Unit, Little Rock AFB, Ark.
  • January 1993 – December 1995, C-130 Aircraft Commander, Special Operations Low-Level II Pilot, and mission scheduler, 40th and 41st Airlift Squadrons, Pope AFB, N.C.
  • December 1995 – March 1998, assistant chief of standardization and evaluation, T-3A Instructor Pilot and Flight Examiner, 557th Flying Training Squadron, United States Air Force Academy, Colo.
  • April 1998 – Jun 1999, Student, F-16 Replacement Training Unit, Luke AFB, Ariz.
  • July 1999 – April 2002, Wing Training and Life Support Officer, Flight Commander, and F-16 Mission Commander, 18th Fighter Squadron, Eielson AFB, Alaska
  • May 2002 – April 2003, Assistant Director of Operations, F-16 Instructor Pilot and Flight Examiner, 35th Fighter Squadron, Kunsan AB, Republic of Korea
  • April 2003 – June 2005, Deputy Director, Pacific Air Forces Commander’s Action Group, Hickam AFB, Hawaii
  • July 2005 – June 2006, Senior Developmental Education Student, Joint Advanced Warfighting School, Naval Air Station Norfolk, Va.
    July 2006 – July 2007, Chief of Wing Safety, 56th Fighter Wing, Luke AFB, Ariz.
  • July 2007 – October 2008, Commander, 61st Fighter Squadron, Luke AFB, Ariz.
  • October 2008 – August 2010, Special Assistant to the SACEUR and Commander, USEUCOM, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe, Belgium
  • August 2010 – June 2012, Commander, 20th Operations Group, Shaw AFB, S.C.
  • June 2012 – July 2014, Commander, 14th Flying Training Wing, Columbus AFB, Miss.
  • July 2014 – Present, Director of Assignments and AEF Operations, Headquarters Air Force Personnel Center, Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph, Tex.

FLIGHT INFORMATION
Rating: Command Pilot
Flight hours: More than 3200
Aircraft flown: C-130E, T-3A, F-16 blocks 25-50, and T-38C

MAJOR AWARDS AND DECORATIONS:
Legion of Merit with one oak leaf cluster
Distinguished Flying Cross with Valor Device
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Meritorious Service Medal with three oak leaf clusters
Air Medal with two oak leaf clusters
Aerial Achievement Medal with oak leaf cluster
Air Force Commendation Medal with three oak leaf clusters

EFFECTIVE DATES OF PROMOTION:
Second Lieutenant May 29, 1991
First Lieutenant May 29, 1993
Captain May 29, 1995
Major April 1, 2002
Lieutenant Colonel March 1, 2006
Colonel October 1, 2009

Maj. Samuel P. Cox — A County Legend

The adventures of Major S.P. Cox (1828-1913) read like a history of our nation including the westward movement, the Mexican War, the West’s early Indian wars, the California gold rush, the Civil War, and the exploits the notorious outlaws Frank & Jesse James.

The adventures of Major S.P. Cox (1828-1913) read like a history of our nation including the westward movement, the Mexican War, the West’s early Indian wars, the California gold rush, the Civil War, and the exploits the notorious outlaws Frank & Jesse James.

Samuel Cox of Gallatin, MO

Samuel Cox was born on Dec. 16, 1828, at Williamsburg in Whitley County, KY. He moved to Daviess County, MO, in 1839 with his father, Franklin Cox. The family settled in the southeastern part of the county near the old Ames Saw Mill and Trosper Lake.

Enlisting in the U.S. Army at age 19, Cox was among the Missouri volunteers ordered to help develop the Oregon Trail and Mormon Trail and to protect the Santa Fe Trail. In 1848 he helped complete Fort Kearney, located on the south side of the Platte River in what later became Nebraska.

Cox settled in Gallatin, MO, in 1850, married and worked four years in the mercantile business. Then, with oxen and cattle, he moved his family to Oroville, CA, to work as a teamster for gold diggers. The family prospered but yearned to return to Missouri. So, they sold out and went to San Francisco where they were attracted to a steam ship voyage, a route with Baltimore as a destination by way of Nicaraugua. The family survived a shipwreck near Key West, FL.

In 1859 Cox drew national newspaper publicity for an extraordinary feat. While delivering Army dispatches, Cox covered over 1200 miles in 30 days by mule! His trek from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Nebraska City, NE, included one leg of 125 miles without a stop to avoid hostile Sioux warriors led by Red Cloud. Cox’s feat compares favorably against horseback rides in relay — and he was a lone rider without companions or support, other than two good mules.

Cox was among the first to publicly declare for the Union soon after the start of the Civil War in 1861. He promptly recruited and commanded “Cox’s Battalion.” He fought guerrillas at Kirksville (Adair County), Lee’s Ford (Chariton County), and Union Mills (Platte County).

Daviess County Savings Association, located on the southwest corner of the Gallatin business square

After the war, the infamous James Gang robbery of the Daviess County Savings Association occurred on Dec. 7, 1869. The murder of cashier John Sheets vaulted Frank and Jesse James onto the wanted list for the very first time and marked the beginning of an assault against law and order of international interest. Samuel P. Cox was a central player in the outlaws’ early plot.

Inscription on the ceremonial saber presented to Lt. Col. Samuel P. Cox of St. Joseph reads: “Presented to Lt. Col. Samuel P. Cox, 33 Inf. Missouri militia, from the Citizens of Gallatin, Mo., Dec. 25, 1864”
Daviess County Historical Society acquired a ceremonial saber and pistol in May, 1992. The saber was given in gratitude for his wartime services. The pistol is a Remington .44 six-shot U.S. Army revolver, authentic and thought to be used by Cox although not of a quality to interest gun collectors. The Remington is from an estimated quantity of 132,000 issued between 1803 and 1875, and was considered the stiffest competitor to Colt’s Model 1860 Army revolver. A leather holster complete with brass Army buckle was also acquired. (Cox obituary, published August, 1913, in the Gallatin Democrat)

Union Major Samuel P. Cox gained widespread fame when he was credited with the killing of William “Bloody Bill” Anderson on Oct. 27, 1864, near Richmond, MO. The City of St. Joseph presented Cox with a ceremonial sword for killing the notorious guerrilla chief (accused of killing 54 Union men). Few knew Major Cox was actually protecting a bugler under his command, Adolph Vogel, who in all probability pulled the trigger that sent Bloody Bill to his death. Vogel was a young family man, mindful of revenge sworn by Jesse James and other guerrillas against whomever killed their leader. So, as commanding officer, Major Cox assumed that personal risk for years after the Civil War …a risk that became bloody reality when the James brothers later robbed the savings association in Gallatin.

Artist’s concept of the shooting of Capt. John Sheets

Jesse James swore he would avenge the death of Wm. “Bloody Bill” Anderson whenever he next saw Samuel P. Cox. Thus, during the 1869 robbery of the Daviess County Savings Association, John W. Sheets was an unfortunate victim of circumstance when Jesse James mistook him for Samuel Cox. A horse used during the robbery and murder linked Jesse James to the crime. The Governor of Missouri soon offered a bounty for the capture of the outlaw. This was the first time Jesse James was publicly wanted by the law, the start of a 12-year crime spree.

Ironically, a James Gang member, Clelland Miller, was a friend to Cox and actually saved the Major’s life during the Civil War.

The case can be made for Samuel Cox to top our list of military leaders from Daviess County. His escapades and achievements need no embellishment.

In 1862 Major Cox served the county as recorder and circuit clerk. In 1874 he was collector for Union Township.

If Cox wasn’t particularly interested in business, he certainly knew how to pick business partners. Local records show a mercantile business at the southeast corner of the Gallatin square called Ballinger, Cox & Kemper. It operated a little more than a year, long enough for the birth of William T. Kemper. The Kemper family fortune became one of Kansas City’s largest. The family controls one of Missouri’s largest financial institutions, United Missouri Bank of Kansas City, and the Kemper name is lavished on Kansas City’s civic arena. By the way, the real estate for the business in Gallatin was purchased by the three partners for $1,500. Evidently, business was good. Partner John Ballinger later purchased Kemper’s interest for $1,250.

Samuel P. Cox died on Aug. 21, 1913, a man who lived history in legendary fashion. He is buried at Brown Cemetery, on the north side of Gallatin.

— written by Darryl Wilkinson, Gallatin North Missourian editor & publisher

Dick Paul retires as USAF 2-Star General

Richard R. Paul retired from the USAF on June 1, 2000, as a Major General in command of Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. He directed the Air Force’s $1.4 billion science and technology program which was executed by more than 6,000 people in the laboratory’s component technology directorates and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

Richard R. Paul (GHS Class of 1962) retired from the USAF on June 1, 2000, as a Major General in command of Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. He directed the Air Force’s $1.4 billion science and technology program which was executed by more than 6,000 people in the laboratory’s component technology directorates and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

The general planned basic research to ensure continued technological superiority; developed and transitioned new technologies for Air Force weapon systems and their supporting infrastructure; and ensured responsive technical support to time-urgent problems whenever and wherever they occurred.

Paul previously commanded the Wright Laboratory which involved a work force of over 2,500 people at Dayton, including 1,700 scientists and engineers. This was the largest aerospace laboratory complex in the Air Force prior to the 1997 formation of the Air Force Research Laboratory.

A 1962 graduate of GHS, Richard R. Paul retired from the USAF on June 1, 2000, as a Major General in command of Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. He directed the Air Force’s $1.4 billion science and technology program which was executed by more than 6,000 people in the laboratory’s component technology directorates and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The general planned basic research to ensure continued technological superiority; developed and transitioned new technologies for Air Force weapon systems and their supporting infrastructure; and ensured responsive technical support to time-urgent problems whenever and wherever they occurred.
The general entered the Air Force in 1967 as a distinguished graduate of Officer Training School, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. He has served in two Air Force laboratories, a product center, two major command headquarters, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C., and a joint staff assignment. Prior to his current assignment, he served as commander of Wright Laboratory, the largest aerospace laboratory complex in the Air Force prior to the 1997 formation of the Air Force Research Laboratory.
His educational pursuits following high school graduation were: 1966 Bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering, University of Missouri at Rolla;
1971 Master of science degree in electrical engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio; 1975 Distinguished graduate, Squadron Officer School, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.;
1980 Distinguished graduate, Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.; 1984 Distinguished graduate, Naval War College, Newport, R.I.
MAJOR AWARDS AND DECORATIONS
Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster
Defense Meritorious Service Medal
Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
Air Force Commendation Medal
EFFECTIVE DATES OF PROMOTION
Second Lieutenant May 27, 1967
First Lieutenant Nov 27, 1968
Captain May 2

After graduating from Gallatin High School, Paul achieved a degree in electrical engineering at the University of Missouri at Rolla. He earned a 1971 Master of Science degree in electrical engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. He was a 1975 distinguished graduate of the Squadron Officer School, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.; a 1980 distinguished graduate of the Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.; and a 1984 distinguished graduate of the Naval War College, Newport, RI.

His major awards and decorations include the Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, and the Air Force Commendation Medal.

Major General Paul is the son of the late Robert E. and Jane Ann Paul, former longtime residents of Gallatin, MO. Bob Paul was president of First National Bank, Gallatin, for many years. The general and his wife, Joyce, are the parents of a son, David.

— reprinted from the Gallatin North Missourian

Remembering Veterans

In 1950 a petition was circulating in Missouri for a bonus bill to be passed so veterans could be placed on the November ballot.

In 1950 a petition was circulating in Missouri for a bonus bill to be passed so veterans could be placed on the November ballot.

The petition stated the maximum bonuses to World War II veterans would be $400 for those who served within the U.S. and $500 for overseas veterans. Only those veterans who served between Sept. 16, 1940 and Sept. 2, 1945, would be eligible.

The petitions were distributed by representatives of the VFW posts at Tina, Chillicothe, Carrolton, Gallatin, Jamesport, Gilman City, Bethany and Pattonsburg. The petitions were simply a way to get the bonus bill on the ballot at the November election. People signing the petitions had to have resided in the state one year and in the county 60 days. If the bill passed, the bonuses would be derived from special taxes to be imposed on items in 10 categories, nine of which were listed as luxuries, and the 10th against corporations doing business in the State of Missouri.

The taxes used to raise the money would cease on the date the money had been raised. This bonus was completely separate from any federal bonus which might come in the future. To be placed on the ballot, they had to be signed by eight percent of the legal voters in each two-thirds of the congressional districts in the state and filed at the statehouse at least 120 days before the election.

In late May 1950, both the Gallatin and Pattonsburg veterans’ organizations and auxiliaries had memorial services at two different cemeteries. At Brown Cemetery in Gallatin more than 50 veterans and a score of their auxiliaries listened as a brief prayer was said and an American Legion post commander read a tribute to all war dead. A similar service was held at the Pattonsburg Cemetery. At each service, a firing squad of seven veterans fired three shots into the the air and standing at rest were color bearers, flag guard and members of the auxilary. Flowers were placed on veterans’ graves and a American flag was left as a grave marker in honor of each fallen soldier, It was the first time such a ceremony had been held at either cemetery since the close of world War II. Taking part in the services were veterans of the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force. More than 200 people attended the ceremonies.

At the election, more than 2,200 names were signed to 17 petitions passed among people in Daviess County urging them to vote for a veteran’s bonus for Missourians who were in the armed forces during the last world war. More than 850 of those names were signed in Gallatin alone.

At that time they had to have only eight percent of the voters in two-thirds of the counties of the state to get the measure before the legislature and they had more than the necessary number on the Daviess county petitions.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

1948: County Sends Relief

In 1948, a relief program was started called Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP). It began as a relief program for 43 war-stricken foreign countries. Daviess County also participated. The program was sponsored by American churches; however, there were many farm organizations, civic and service clubs, and countless other cooperating individuals that wanted to be included.

In 1948, a relief program was started called Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP). It began as a relief program for 43 war-stricken foreign countries. Daviess County also participated. The program was sponsored by American churches; however, there were many farm organizations, civic and service clubs, and countless other cooperating individuals that wanted to be included.

Contributions made to the program were distributed to those in need such as children, orphans, widows, the aged, those hospitalized, youth and pre-tubercular clinics.
Contributions in Daviess County were to be made in wheat, soybeans, or cash. The county’s quota was for two carloads of wheat or approximately 3,000 bushels, the equivalent in cash being $6,000.

The county committee suggested it would be better for them if the people contributed cash. The program was to be in force until every person in the county had been solicited. It was said concerning the crop donations that “we can raise a crop every year, but people die of starvation only once.”

It was believed there wasn’t a single group in the county that wouldn’t give if the members actually realized the starvation and disease that existed abroad at that time. With inflated prices, it was almost impossible for millions to purchase the very necessities of life. Approximately 90% of the people wanted to give the program a chance and were giving cash rather than grain.

The county quota of $6,000 was to be used by the national CROP office in Chicago to purchase wheat, soybeans, cotton or dried milk products to be sent to four overseas countries where there was the greatest need.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Teacher Shortage During World War II

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

Although it was nearing the end of the school year, the state had barely enough teachers to operate. Predictions were that there would be an even greater loss of teachers the following year.
The state’s Department of Education was working with the local superintendents in solving the problem. Some of their suggestions were:

1. Dropping the bars which many school districts had erected against employment of married women.

2. Urging retired teachers to return and making it easier for them to renew their certificates.

3. Closing small non-essential schools with their small enrollments and sending the pupils to nearby schools.

4. Dropping some special courses to permit reduction of staffs in larger school systems.

5. To make it easier for teachers to renew teaching certificates the state colleges offered special summer extension and correspondence courses and the state department issued special one-year certificates.

A later survey revealed 1,765 vacancies in 9,000 schools in the state, exclusive of Kansas City and St. Louis. Further plans to alleviate the situation were the issuing of special emergency teaching certificates to people with two years of college work and the combination of some school districts. Some 700 districts had been merged so teacher’s could utilize the same materials.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Farm Deferments During World War II

In the early 1940s there was a shortage of farm workers and many people stated that replacing these workers was hard to do.

In the early 1940s there was a shortage of farm workers and many people stated that replacing these workers was hard to do.

Thousands of our men took jobs in shipyards and airplane factories thinking they could be exempt from going to war and seek deferment because they had essential operations. However, many of the “higher ups” were under the impression these workers could be replaced far easier than the farmers and their “expertise.” These men played a vital part in the army by furnishing the “bread and butter” for the people.

Some guidelines for deferment for farmers were:

1. A farmer who resided on his farm and operated it alone was required to have at least eight milk cows.

2. If both a farmer and his son lived on the farm together, 16 animal units were required for the man to obtain deferment.

3. By Feb. 12, 1943, in order to get deferment, the farmer had to raise at least 10 animal units.

4. By May 12, 1943, the farmer had to have at least 12 animal units. Feed for the stock had to be produced on the farm where the resident lived.

Since there was a variety of different types of animals on different types of farms, guidelines were often flexible. For example:

For one milk cow there had to be three beef cows; or four two-year-old steers; or four feed lot cattle; or 16 ewes; or 80 feed lot lambs; or flock of 75 hens; or 250 chickens raised; or 500 broilers; or 40 turkeys raised; or nine hogs raised. Breeding herd was not considered at all.

A typical example if a farmer lived on a farm alone, and had the following stock, he would meet the requirement of eight animal units and would be entitled to deferment: 2 milk cows…2; 18 hogs raised…2; flock of 150 hens…2; raise 250 chickens…1; 16 ewes…1; Total animal units = 8.

By May 1943, there was desperate need for farm workers as farming season approached and seed bed preparation and planting was needed and past due because of the wet weather. Year-round farm hands and seasonal workers could be secured from other sections of the state by making application at the county office or with the volunteer workers in the towns.

Volunteer workers were also needed to fill requests and place workers in as many cases as possible. Also available for summer jobs were the high school and college students.

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Do you remember….

*when service stations filled your gas tank for you, checked the oil and the air in your car’s tires, and washed the windshield

*when ice was sold in large cubes for the ice boxes

*when grocery stores delivered groceries to your home

*when you used red and green mills to pay sales tax

*when farmers took eggs to town in 36-dozen wooden cases

*when farmers purchased baby chicks in the spring and raised them in the brooder house

*when many farmers took their grain to the elevator in their pickups and wagons

*when you couldn’t go to town when the roads were muddy without putting chains on your car

*when cars had mud flaps and running boards

*when hogs were found on most small farms and were called “mortgage breakers.”

*when soot had to be cleaned from the flues

*when vinegar was shipped in large barrels and used to fill the containers the people brought in

*when flour was sold in cloth bags and women used the empty sacks to make a dress, shirt, etc.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Meat Rationing Necessary on the Home Front

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

Civilians would have available only a little more than half of the amount they had consumed in recent years. Everyone wouldn’t get as much of every kind of food as they wanted and their diets might not be as pleasant to eat, but there would still be enough for everyone to have a healthy and adequate diet.

On March 28, 1943, the O.P.A. (Office of Price Administration) became involved in the rationing of meats, edible fats and oils (including butter) cheese and canned food. From then on, a War Ration Book No. 2 had to be used.

In the first month, each card holder, regardless of age, would have a basic allotment of 16 points a week to spend. If all the points weren’t used in the same week, they could be held a week or longer.

The B., C., D. and E. Red stamps became valid in alphabetical order. As each series of red stamps became valid they could be used with complete freedom of choice to buy any one of the rationed products.

The new program permitted the dealer to give change in ration stamps, using only one-point stamps. Surrender of stamps had to be given in the presence of the merchant, clerk or deliveryman.

Some items covered were: 1. All fresh, frozen, cured meats and meat products derived from beef, veal, lamb, mutton and pork, as well as variety meats such as sausages, canned fish and canned shellfish. 2. The most important natural and processed cheeses and their derivatives, but not the cottage type and cream cheeses. 3. Most edible fats and oils, including butter, lard, margarine, shortening, salad oils and cooking oils.

All restaurants, hotels and other “institutional users” were allowed supplies of the rationed foods on the same basis that would reduce their use to approximately the same level as that of the private individual who ate at home.

None of the rationed foods could be used in the manufacture of dog foods.

Point values for the entire list of the rationed foods were to be posted just as if they were canned goods. There would be approximately 150 meat items with about 60 types and cuts made monthly as well as a separate chart for each store.

The new plan didn’t place any restrictions on any of the foods raised by the farmers if they were used for themselves. Farmers and their families were given a full quota of points. If a farmer sold any of his home-produced meat, butter, or other rationed foods, he had to collect ration stamps, checks or certificates when making a sale and surrender the collected points to the OPA.

All county livestock slaughterers, butchers and resident farm slaughterers who sold meat after April 1, 1943, had to obtain a permit from the local USDA War Board. Farm slaughterers included all individual killing and selling of any meat. If they slaughtered exclusively for home consumption on the farm they weren’t covered by the order.

Livestock dealers and agents were required to register and obtain permits partly for the reason of stamping out black markets, providing adequate meat supplies for military and lend-lease needs, and to guarantee sufficient coupons issued by OPA.

Each individual was required to show on his application for a permit the number of each type of livestock which he slaughtered in 1941 and the total live weight of the livestock. Quotas were the applicant’s choice of (1) the number of livestock which he slaughtered in the corresponding period in 1941; or (2) the total live weight of the animals which he butchered and sold during the base period.

Any farm slaughterer who applied for a permit and was unable to furnish data showing his slaughter in 1941 received his choice of (1) 300 lbs. of meat; or (2) the meat from three animals including not more than one head of cattle. Anyone who didn’t obtain his permit before April 1 was required to suspend operation until the proper permit was obtained.

In early 1944, the government issued red and blue ration tokens for buying meat and some types of processed products. Each token was worth 10 points each. Blue tokens were to be used when the price of the processed food was less than 10 points. Red tokens were to used for meat purchases.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Gallatin’s Problem with Homes for Returning Vets

The ending of World War II was the beginning of a new set of problems for Gallatin veterans. The vets were coming “home,” but there wasn’t any “home” for them to return to. A Gallatin survey revealed there were at least 25 new houses needed since there weren’t any vacant houses nor rooms to rent.

The ending of World War II was the beginning of a new set of problems for Gallatin veterans. The vets were coming “home,” but there wasn’t any “home” for them to return to. A Gallatin survey revealed there were at least 25 new houses needed since there weren’t any vacant houses nor rooms to rent.

The Gallatin Rotary Club passed a resolution backing a building program for the purpose of alleviating the housing shortage and also to curb inflation of real estate values.

The problem came to light when a man went to buy a permit to build in the city. He found a building priority for a home was impossible to obtain unless the town in which he resided had a set building quota. Gallatin didn’t have any such quota.

Building quotas were based on each particular town and an investigation of Gallatin revealed several factors had to be resolved before a quota could be set. A few of these factors were:

1. There were eight or more families without places to live and several others were inadequately housed

2. Property values had inflated from 100% to 300%

3. Many retired farmers were moving to town

4. Several returning veterans had expressed wanting to live in Gallatin.

A proposal was set up by the FPHA (Federal Public Housing Authority) stating they’d furnish pre-fabricated houses of a war-housing type and ship the parts to Gallatin for assembly. The housing units would remain federally owned. They would be four, five, or six bedroom homes and modern in every way.

Only discharged veterans or families of servicemen were eligible to apply for the accommodations. Before applications could be made for the temporary housing, an estimate of community needs had to be made. All veterans and servicemen’s families who wanted the accommodations were urged to sign up for them. The number of houses to be asked for depended upon the number of people interested in securing this type of housing.

In January 1946, Gallatin made application for 15 temporary family units to be occupied by discharged veterans and the families of servicemen. Additional units were to be ordered if the houses were being utilized and proved to be satisfactory. The government would furnish pre-fabricated war-housing type dwellings delivered prepaid by the city. The cost of a site and connecting the utilities would be paid to the city. The rent, at a very nominal cost of $22 a month, was to be charged to the veterans and families.

The application was turned down because the quota for the houses had been exhausted. Both the project requested and the number size of the housing administration was too small. They’d substitute 10 trailers. In February, 1946, 10 family trailers were ordered and were to be of two sizes, 7′ x 22′ one bedroom units and three 22′ x 22′ bedroom units. Each trailer had their water and electricity. The trailers would be allotted to the applicants in the order the requests were received.

Dockery Park was chosen for the site because there’d be less work and expense. There’d be little grading and sodding to be done, sidewalks and gavel driveways were already built and present light and water facilities were nearby. Rent from the trailers would go to the FPHA after the expenses of maintenance were deducted. FPHA retained the title to the buildings. Families of servicemen and veterans were the only eligible tenants of the trailers. Also included were men seeking accommodation so they could bring their families stationed outside the locality.

Nearing the end of February, Gallatin was assured of its trailer colony housing project. The FPHA would provide the materials and the labor for the construction of two baths and laundry buildings at the trailer site. The building would be 29 ˝’ x 23′ and would cost $8,300. The project had been turned down earlier by the city officials due to the scarcity of materials and labor.

In May 1946, the government agreed to relieve the city of any responsibility in building construction. The bath and laundry building was approved for the colony. Under the proposal the city would sign a contract with the housing authority to build the structure, with the government agency paying the bill. The city was to hire the labor, buy the material, and supervise the construction. The building was to be centrally located in the trailer colony.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

World War II Scrap Metal Drives

In 1942, there was a big demand for scrap metal materials for the fighting of World War II. On Oct. 9, 1942, there was big scrap metal drive in Daviess County.

In 1942, there was a big demand for scrap metal materials for the fighting of World War II. On Oct. 9, 1942, there was big scrap metal drive in Daviess County.

It was estimated that 1.5 million tons of scrap lay useless on U.S. farms. Enough to build 139 modern battleships for the navy! If the average farm generated 125 pounds to be mixed with other materials, each farm could possibly make a 500 pound aerial bomb. If the farmers banned their collection and accumulated 36,000 pounds there would be enough scrap iron to build one 27-ton tank.

All the scarp was important: One old shovel would make four hand grenades; one old disc would provide scrap steel for 210 semi-automatic light carbines; one old broken plow would help make 100 75mm armor piercing projectiles; one useless old tire would provide enough rubber for 12 gas masks; old lawn mowers, flat irons, broken tools would all count; 125 pounds of rusty metal, mixed with other materials, was enough to make a 500 pound aerial bomb; an old hand corn sheller would make three one-inch shells.

The Daviess County USDA war board took the responsibility to encourage the collection of scrap metal from all the local farms. The metal would be taken to the smelters and blast furnaces to be remade. The need for it was vital because many steel plants throughout the country had been slowed down or had to suspend operations because of the lack of material.

On Oct. 9, plans were made for every school and every business in the county to close and to work out their plans such as arranging for trucks, how to collect the scrap, where to sell it, what to do with the money, etc.

The schools and town salvage committees took the lead in the collection. Some people donated their trucks for the project. However, the scrap had to be brought to them as they didn’t have time to go from farm to farm and pick up the metal.

This enabled every man, woman and child to have an opportunity to help. Four Gallatin girls helped in a big way when they removed an entire iron pump from a well in south Gallatin which had been donated. People were willing to help as there were approximately 500 Daviess County boys fighting in the U.S. Army, Navy, Marines and Air Force.

Nearly 300 tons of scrap metal was collected. In Gallatin the scrap was hauled to the Whitfield salvage dump and the Hacker junk yard. Approximately 270 tons of scrap was purchased in the county on scrap day. Including what had been purchased prior to “scrap day” brought the county 457 tons.

Another important campaign was the collection of two million victory keys. The goal was to raise 12,000,000 pounds of metal. The average key contained about 80% nickel silver which was desperately needed by the Navy, particularly the Yale and Corbin type keys. These keys could be deposited in Gallatin stores, namely the Merrigan Grocery, Davis Drug Co., King’s Drug Store, the high school and the Gallatin Publishing Co.

Every penny over the actual cost of the campaign was given to the boys in the service through their United States Organization (USO).

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Throughtout the war years after the war started, a temporary freeze was put on farm machinery because of the scrap iron shortage. There were exceptions to the rule, but a farmer had to present a valid reason why he needed new equipment; why he was unable to repair his present equipment; why he could not purchase or rent used machinery; or why he could not use custom or exchange work. The purchaser also had to present a satisfactory reason for changing from horse power to motor power. If refused, he could appeal to the state USDA board.

There was a shortage of car manufacturing and new cars were hard to come by which caused a safety hazzard. Motorists were driving older cars which were harder to keep safe because of the shortage of spare parts and skilled mechanics. Car tires were used beyond their safely point. Many cars which had been discarded as unfit for service were back on the road.

On Oct. 9, 1942, a big scrap drive took place in Daviess County. All the county schools and stores closed in order for every man, woman and child to be able to participate. Each county town and each school district worked out a plan for such things as how to collect the scrap, where to sell it, what to do with the money, etc.

The courthouse was chosen as the central point and committees went out in four directions. Each section was appointed a captain and each section was to pile their scraps where it could be seen.
Another important nationwide campaign was the collection of keys. Two million victory key kans and two million placards were distributed throughout every U.S. city. The goal was to raise 12,000,000 pounds of metal. The average key contained 80% nickel silver which was vital to the navy.

There were five places to deposit the keys in Gallatin: Merrigan Grocery, Davis Drug Co., Kings Drug Store, Gallatin Publishing Company, and the high school.

On scrap day, Gallatin and the community collected 100 tons of scrap and the county gathered 275 tons.

The scrap had to be sorted, graded, prepared, packed and placed in railroad lots for loading onto freight cars. If there wasn’t enough material of one grade in a county to make a carload, it became necessary to combine grades from several neighboring counties.

In early October, it was announced that any county that made a per capita collection of 100 pounds or more of scrap from any or all sources during the period of Sept. 1 to Oct. 31, would receive a Victory Salvage Pennant to fly from the flagpole in the courthouse yard.

By early December Gallatin reached its 900 ton goal. More scrap iron was still to be found. The government dedicated the remaining years of 1942 to an extended scrap hunt. Salvage committees were instructed to continue to make available to farmers all the transportation facilities and manpower needed.

In April, 1943, an all out effort was made to gather tin cans. They were piled separately from the other trash and city trucks picked them up.

Copper was the most important and the most needed of all metals for war production. One hundred pounds of tin cans was equal in worth to one pound of copper.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Food Shortages During & After World War II

In 1943, women on 175 Daviess County farms were doing more work than ever. Many were going to work in the fields in addition to carrying on what had always been the women’s share of the farm work such as milking, taking care of the chickens and gardening.

In 1943, women on 175 Daviess County farms were doing more work than ever. Many were going to work in the fields in addition to carrying on what had always been the women’s share of the farm work such as milking, taking care of the chickens and gardening.

They started a plan as to what other things they could do such as:

1. To grow a garden that would produce enough food to feed the family the year around.

2. To can 100 to 200 quarts of food and store six to 10 bushels of potatoes and other storable food.

3. To use home-produced foods in well-prepared meals which met the requirement for good health.

4. To buy as little as possible from commercial food supplies, leaving it for the armed forces and those that couldn’t produce their own.

5. To take care of equipment and supplies to extend their usefulness and prevent need for replacement.

6. To adjust homemaking practices and the use of time and energy so the family’s welfare wasn’t neglected while at the same time making possible the production of more of the foods essential to war needs.

There were drawbacks in regard to the canning, as sugar was rationed at five pounds, but a new ration stamp for an extra 10 pounds would soon be sent to those who would do the extra canning.

After World War II had ended, there was still a food shortage at home and abroad. Mrs. Truman’s instructions at the White House were: wheatless day every Monday; use wheat food only at breakfast on other days; no bread served at dinner.

There were nine ways in which Daviess County homemakers could save critically needed foods, including:

1. Cutting down on the waste of bread in every way possible. Estimates indicated one slice out of every loaf of bread went into the garbage can.

2. Reducing the amount of bread used at each meal through substitutes such as potatoes and oat cereals. Fruit could be used instead of cake and pastries for desserts.

3. Using alternate foods and using less wheat cereals for breakfast.

4. Saving cooking fats by making more extensive use of meat drippings for cooking and seasoning food.

5. Holding down the number of fried foods that were served.

6. Saving and reusing fats and oils for cooking purposes.

7. Holding bacon grease for cooking and rendering out excess fats or meats.

8. All fats that couldn’t be reused could be salvaged and turned in at the butcher’s shop or grocery store.

9. Using less oil and salad dressing.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Meat Rationing during World War II

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

In March 1942, the armed forces and the fighting allies were using about one-fourth of all the meat our country produced. Rationing became necessary on the home front.

Civilians would have available only a little more than half of the amount they had consumed in recent years. Everyone wouldn’t get as much of every kind of food as they wanted and their diets might not be as pleasant to eat, but there’d still be enough for everyone to have a healthy and adequate diet.

On March 28, 1943, the O.P.A. (Office of Price Administration) became involved in the rationing of meats, edible fats and oils (including butter), cheeses and canned food. From then on, a War Ration Book No. 2 had to be used.

In the first month, each card holder, regardless of age, would have a basic allotment of 16 points a week to spend. If all the points weren’t used in the same week, they could be held a week or longer. The B.C.D. and E. red stamps became valid in alphabetical order. As such series of red stamps became valid they could be used with complete freedom of choice to buy any one of the rationed products. The new program permitted the dealer to give change in ration stamps, using only 1-point stamps. Surrender of stamps had to be given in the presence of the merchant, clerk or deliveryman.

Some items covered were: (1) All fresh, frozen, cured meats and meat products derived from beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork, as well as variety meats such as sausages, canned fish and canned shellfish. (2) The most important natural and processed cheeses and their derivatives, but not the cottage type and cream cheeses. (3) Most edible fats and oils, including butter, lard, margarine, shortening, salad oils and cooking oils.

All restaurants, hotels and other “institutional users” were to be allowed supplies of the rationed foods on the same basis that would reduce their use to approximately the same level as that of the private individual who ate at home. None of the rationed foods could be used in the manufacture of dog foods.

Point values for the entire list of the rationed foods were to be posted just as if they were canned goods. There would be approximately 150 meat items with about 60 types and cuts made monthly as well as a separate chart for each store.

The new plan didn’t place any restriction on any of the foods raised by the farmers if they were used for themselves. Farmers and their families were given a full quota of points. If a farmer sold any of his home-produced meat, butter, or other rationed foods, he had to collect ration stamps, checks or certificates when making a sale and surrender the collected points to the OPA.

All county livestock slaughterers, butchers and resident farm slaughterers who sold meat after April 1, 1943, had to obtain a permit from the local USDA War Board. Farm slaughterers included all individual killing and selling any meat. If they slaughtered exclusively for home consumption on their farms they weren’t covered by the order. Livestock dealers and agents were required to register and obtain permits partly for the reason of stamping out black markets, providing adequate meat supplies for military and lend-lease needs, and to guarantee sufficient coupons issued by OPA.

Each individual was required to show on his application for a permit the number of each type of livestock which he slaughtered in 1941 and the total live weight of the livestock. Quotas were the applicant’s choice of (1) the number of livestock which he slaughtered in the corresponding period in 1941; or (2) the total live weight of the animals which he butchered and sold during the base period.

Any farm slaughtered who applied for a permit and was unable to furnish data showing his slaughter in 1941 received his choice of (1) 300 pounds of meat; or (2) the meat from three animals including not more than one head of cattle. Anyone who didn’t obtain his permit before April 1 was required to suspend operation until the proper permit was obtained.

In early 1944, the government issued red and blue ration tokens for buying meat and some types of processed products. Each token was worth 10 points each. Blue tokens were to be used when the prices of the processed food was less than 10 points. Red tokens were to be used for meat purchases.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Fuel Shortage in the mid-1940s

Due to World War II, fuel was in short supply on the home front. Prior to the winter months and anticipating a shortage, people were urged to start preparing for it to avoid being “left out in the cold.” This included wood, fuel oil and coal.

Due to World War II, fuel was in short supply on the home front. Prior to the winter months and anticipating a shortage, people were urged to start preparing for it to avoid being “left out in the cold.” This included wood, fuel oil and coal.

Those people who heated with fuel oil were urged to get their storage tanks filled as quickly as they could. If these tanks weren’t filled then, fuel might not be available when it was needed. Tank cars were being diverted to transport a large part of the Navy’s fuel oil to the West Coast, leaving less overland transportation available for civilian needs. Still, in these summer months, supplies were greater and would allow for more efficient delivery than when the product was needed the worst.

The previous winter, about 3,000 homes had been heated with fuel oil. Now, in these mid-summer months many of the people had already mailed applications to the War Price and Rationing Boards. The boards urged the people to get their fuel allocations while transportation was more readily available and there was still time to repair their old and their current equipment. Many people had followed suit and were starting to get their coupon books for their fuel allotment.

Still, many were using the primitive way by heating with wood. Many people had woodlands with plenty of wood for their use and there wasn’t any reason they couldn’t have fuel. People were urged to share their wood with others who didn’t have an adequate supply. Everyone didn’t cooperate; many had woodlands with plenty of firewood and refused to share it with those who were in dire need even though some of it was laying on the ground rotting. Others were profiteering from the wood supply even though it was greatly discouraged.

Likewise, those who used coal were also encouraged to lay in their winter supply. One factor was the space because neither the mines nor the local dealers had the capacity to store large amounts of coal. If the transportation process was slowed down in the cold months, these minimal amounts would soon be depleted and new shipments could be delayed creating another shortage.

At that time it was predicted transportation facilities were going to be tighter than ever before. It was imperative that the coal flow from the mines to the dealer’s supplies and the consumer’s bins. There couldn’t be any working time lost by the coal mines which were operating with the smallest crews and task force.

Just the mining and the preparing fuel weren’t entirely caused by the shortage of the fuel. Other factors entered in, such as the shortage of men to work the mines and transport the product because many of the men who had the jobs were now fighting overseas. Likewise, proper manufacturing could be hindered by the lack of machines in top quality.

The homeowners were also urged to take conservative measures by cleaning and repairing their present furnaces and heating equipment. They were also urged to install insulation and weather stripping.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Shoe Rationing in 1943

In 1943, shoes were rationed and had to be purchased with ration stamps. However, in order for the merchants to rid some of their odd and end pairs, a “shoe holiday” was established which lasted for two weeks from July 19 to July 31.

In 1943, shoes were rationed and had to be purchased with ration stamps. However, in order for the merchants to rid some of their odd and end pairs, a “shoe holiday” was established which lasted for two weeks from July 19 to July 31.

Some of its stipulations were the sale would only consist of a small percentage of each type to be sold. The dealer could sell only 1% of his stock of men’s dress shoes and men’s work shoes, 4% of womens’ shoes, 2% of misses, children and infant’s shoes and 2% of all other rationed footwear.

The sale price couldn’t be more than a 10% mark-up from the price paid by the dealer. If the price couldn’t be determined or if the shoes were made by the owner of the establishment, the selling price had to be at least 25% of his selling price on July 1, 1943. It was a way both the merchant and the customer could benefit by purchasing a few odds and ends, broken sizes, and any other problem shoes on the merchant’s shelves.

The shoes were to represent a fixed percentage of retailers’ stocks which were to be marked down and they had to be stamped with stickers bearing “OPA lot release” in any notice or advertisement. People were urged to turn in their old shoes, boots and soles.

The amendment also allowed mail order houses, wholesalers and manufacturers to move the same percentage of such shoes without a time limit, after July 19, but they had to apply to the district office for permission.

Other rules were more lenient concerning children’s shoes. Considering the fact children would outgrow their shoes, parents could apply to their board for special permission to buy additional shoes and if the parents could prove a need, they would probably be given extra stamps.

In a hardship case when a person couldn’t afford to buy a pair of shoes in addition to the regular pair option they were asked to apply for special coupons.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Tire Rationing in World War II

During World War II the government’s demand for rubber to use almost exclusively for defense purposes caused the need to ration tires on the home front. The Office of Price Administration (OPA) in Washington D.C. regulated the quota and the rules for tires and tubes issued to each county.

During World War II the government’s demand for rubber to use almost exclusively for defense purposes caused the need to ration tires on the home front. The Office of Price Administration (OPA) in Washington D.C. regulated the quota and the rules for tires and tubes issued to each county.

It became necessary to get a certificate when a tire was needed and purchased. The certificate had to be used for that month and couldn’t be carried over to the following month. In January 1942 Daviess County’s allotment was 12 car tires and innertubes and 25 truck tires and innertubes.
The OPA started the Tire Purchase Plan.

Under the plan gasoline rations would be denied to those with more than five passenger cars with more than five tires on each car. If a person had passenger tire trailers, they could have one tire for each running wheel without forfeiting the right to buy gasoline.

The procedure for purchasing new tires required several steps. First, the vehicle the tire was purchased for had to be inspected and an application form filled out. The form would be taken to Gallatin’s rationing board. The board would issue a necessary permit upon proof the tire was needed.

The dealer couldn’t sell a new tire or tube without the certificate. The old tire had to be sold in five days and the certificate had to be approved by the local board. Upon completion of the sale, the dealer could get a new replacement tire for wholesale purposes. The new tire couldn’t be used on any other piece of machinery or vehicle other than the one purchased for and violation of the law meant punishment by the federal government.

No other certificate could be issued unless it was for:

1. An ambulance;

2. Vehicles used specifically for fire fighting, professional services used by a physician, surgeon, visiting nurse or a veterinarian;

3. Vehicles used for fire fighting, police service to regulate laws exclusively relating to public health and safety, garbage disposal and other sanitary services, and mail service.

4. On vehicles with a capacity of 10 or more passengers for regular transportation, students and teachers, employees of any mining or construction work.

Due to the tire shortage of grade III tires, the government released two million usable tires. Some needed repair while others could be used in national emergencies without repair. Large orders were placed with the large company stores and exclusive tire dealers in the larger cities, but very few orders were received from the small dealers in the farming areas where the most critical tire shortage existed.

Local dealers were advised to urge framers to get their orders in quickly because of the high demand that might last 60 to 90 days. Any dealer could purchase from 25 to 100 of these tires for immediate delivery. An “O” would be branded on the sidewall and sold at a price not to exceed a dollar.

Some tires were later retread and recapped, but since the lack of crude rubber used in making the compound was limited it greatly curtailed any great supply. The process to obtain one of the tires was similar to that of purchasing a new one. No applicant would be granted to anyone who had more than one car or truck unless the tires on both machines were worn out.

By June 1943 the drive for scrap rubber had resulted in an accumulation large enough to meet the needs for months to come and the drive was discontinued.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Gas Shortage and Rationing by OPA

In the early 1940s, cars were coming on the scene and gas was utilized more and more. However, due to World War II, the military’s demand for gas caused a shortage on the home front.

In the early 1940s, cars were coming on the scene and gas was utilized more and more. However, due to World War II, the military’s demand for gas caused a shortage on the home front.

Gas companies were drawing on their reserves and using the oil faster than they were finding it.
The partial solution seemed to be to use what they had very sparingly. Gas rationing became necessary and coupons were needed to buy gas. The allotment allowed a person to buy four gallons at a time and it depended on the mileage used. Coupons were mailed to the motorists. The coupon’s expiration date was about 15 months after they’d been issued. The allotment was later changed to two gallons weekly.

Black markets for gas appeared and the ration boards tried to stop them. The boards offered a new plan, hoping to eliminate ration coupon thefts. Soon, when a motorist went to buy gas they were required to show all their gasoline coupons as proof that they were valid. If all the coupons weren’t endorsed, the investigator explained the endorser’s importance, which was a move against the black market.

Any dealers handling coupons that weren’t endorsed had to appear to the local war price and rationing board within 10 days to show that all their coupons had been endorsed. A copy of the notice was then forwarded to the ration board and any motorist failing to comply was to have a hearing for the purpose of revoking their gasoline ration.

The check of coupons in the Kansas City area comprised 51 counties in western Missouri and three counties in Kansas.

Rural areas were hurt to a greater degree than the urban areas by gas rationing because many farmers needed the fuel to power their tractors.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Sugar Rationing During the War Years

Just as the sugar rationing was being put in effect in 1942 during the war years, Daviess County had taken steps to prepare to hand out ration stamps and ration sugar when they got the “go” orders.

Just as the sugar rationing was being put in effect in 1942 during the war years, Daviess County had taken steps to prepare to hand out ration stamps and ration sugar when they got the “go” orders.

The supplies for the rationing were locked in a vault in the city clerk’s office. The supplies included 15,000 rationing books, 16,000 application blanks for books, and 16,000 instructional leaflets.
At the appointed time, these books had to be available for necessary distribution 24 hours a day. Only one member of the rationing board would be able to pass out the books.
Ration books were issued to each household for the eligible amount of sugar they’d receive. For example, a war stamp book No. 8 was issued for a 10 week period from Aug. 23 to Oct. 31, 1942, and was good for five pounds of sugar.

Later, there was a small change. The half pound per person per week was the same as the five pound per person for 10 weeks. This new change was more efficient as it was easier to divide the five pound purchase, which was packed in five, 10, and 25 pound bags that had been put up the previous fall before the sugar was rationed.

Sugar ration books issued to persons who had since died, entered the army, or had been absent from the country for a period of more than 30 days had to be returned to the local War Price and Ration Board which issued them.

To keep informed of the status of consumers in this area, members of the ration board were established. They kept in contact with the local draft board and county health authorities who had a record of deaths.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin