Go-Devils and Listers

“Go-Devil” seems to be a brand name such as Allis Chalmers or John Deere. Among other things there are Go-Devil boats and engines.

“Go-Devil” seems to be a brand name such as Allis Chalmers or John Deere. Among other things there are Go-Devil boats and engines.

Probably the two Go-Devils that would interest us the most would be the sled and the one that had disk-like wheels and was used in the fields to hold the moisture. One type of Go-Devil, the sled, was used to drag or carry small logs and other light things. It had the typical two runners, seat, and was made in such a way to be utilized in the above. The runners were usually made from 2×6’s.

The second type of Go-Devil was mostly metal and had large spoked wheels on the outside. Inside there were thee small disk-like blades on both the right and the left side. When planting corn a horse walked on each side of the row being planted as the kernels fell from a seed box and into the furrows. At that time, corn was planted in hills, usually using the checker method. A man would walk down the rows and by using a hand corn planter would plant 10 or 12 kernels of corn in each hill.

The Go-Devil was used in the depression days to help keep moisture in the soil and allow the kernels to be planted deeper. In turn, this allowed the roots to grow deeper in the ground. It could be used as soon as the tiny shoots were tall enough the Go-Devil wouldn’t cover them and could be used until the stalks were so tall it would break them.

A lister is much like a walking plow, but instead of one side curved to make a furrow it has two sides that come to a point in the shape of “>” and makes a larger furrow by throwing the dirt both ways. Furrows were usually plowed to a distance of 42 or 44 inches from center to center, and it left the soil ridged between. Cultivation was accomplished by cutting down the ridge gradually, throwing the dirt around the growing corn.

On man’s stepfather had a team of mules he used. He drove a 200 mile stretch from Iowa to Missouri, which took 10 days. He’d always listed his field in Iowa and he still wanted to farm the same way in Missouri. He used a double lister to make two planter rows and then followed it up with a two row corn planter.

Some farmers made hard work of the double lister. They listed the field, split the ridges by a second operation with the same tool, and planted the corn with a separate plate. The first time open listing and the second time splitting the ridges and using the subsoiler and planting attachment.

Teacher Shortage during World War II

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

In the days of World War II there was a teacher shortage due to various reasons. Some of the male teachers had been called to service while others had resigned to take on higher paying jobs in industrial plants where war necessities were made. As a result many small schools were faced with closing by 1944.

Although it was nearing the end of the school year, the state had barely enough teachers to operate. Predictions were that there would be an even greater loss of teachers the following year.
The state’s Department of Education was working with the local superintendents in solving the problem. Some of their suggestions were:

1. Dropping the bars which many school districts had erected against employment of married women.

2. Urging retired teachers to return and making it easier for them to renew their certificates.

3. Closing small non-essential schools with their small enrollments and sending the pupils to nearby schools.

4. Dropping some special courses to permit reduction of staffs in larger school systems.

5. To make it easier for teachers to renew teaching certificates the state colleges offered special summer extension and correspondence courses and the state department issued special one-year certificates.

A later survey revealed 1,765 vacancies in 9,000 schools in the state, exclusive of Kansas City and St. Louis. Further plans to alleviate the situation were the issuing of special emergency teaching certificates to people with two years of college work and the combination of some school districts. Some 700 districts had been merged so teachers could utilize the same materials.

— by Wilbur Bush

Tobacco in NW Missouri

In the Depression years, during the 1920s and 1930s, tobacco was on the verge of becoming a stable crop in northwest Missouri. Local farmers were planting the crop in hopes it would be a permanent thing. By 1941, buyers from almost every state in the union were bidding on tobacco and it was netting the farmers from $240 to $300 per acre.

In the Depression years, during the 1920s and 1930s, tobacco was on the verge of becoming a stable crop in northwest Missouri. Local farmers were planting the crop in hopes it would be a permanent thing. By 1941, buyers from almost every state in the union were bidding on tobacco and it was netting the farmers from $240 to $300 per acre.

Tobacco was imported to northwest Missouri. A 74-year-old Pattonsburg lady had 2,970 tobacco sacks and made them into nine quilt tops. Neither she nor her husband smoked. Most of the sacks had been brought to her by her two grandsons who were members of the CCC camps, while others had been given to her by her neighbors. She also made other things out of them which she said, if piled together, would fill a boxcar.

In 1943, another tobacco project was established at Gallatin. The American Legion Post placed jars for money donations around the town to raise money for cigarettes for the servicemen. The words “You did it before, you can do it again” were to be placed on each of the first 1,000 packages of cigarettes purchased with the $50 which was collected. In this case, the tobacco was purchased from the Reynolds Tobacco Company, makers of Camel cigarettes, for five cents per package.

In 1931, a northwest Missouri farmer had a 3-acre plot planted in tobacco. The crop was cut around Sept. 10 and stored in his barn where it was kept until the middle of November. Then it was graded and prepared for the Weston market. When the crop was still in the field, an expert tobacco inspector had estimated the yield to be 1,700 pounds. It was thought the selling price would be 15 cents per pound.

— by Wilbur Bush

Old Age Pension – Part 2

In September, 1935, a law was passed which enables individuals who were age 70 or more to qualify for old age assistance. For several days after its passing, elderly people went to the courthouse and waited in line for their turn to sign up for this relief money.

In September, 1935, a law was passed which enables individuals who were age 70 or more to qualify for old age assistance. For several days after its passing, elderly people went to the courthouse and waited in line for their turn to sign up for this relief money.

Two verifications as to the applicant’s age was needed which could be their Bibles, marriage certificates, life insurance policies, and other credentials. A complete life’s history was required on the application blank which was very time consuming. In less than two weeks, over 200 applicants had been filed with the Daviess County Pension Board and it was predicted the application for it would surpass the 400 mark. The oldest lady to apply was 92.

The pensioners had been led to believe they would get approximately $30 a month for single people and $45 dollars a month for married couples, but they were now informed the pension would only be three or four dollars monthly. This was due to the fact the old age pension department only estimated approximately 48,000 would be eligible for the assistance in Missouri, but a census estimated over 145,000 would qualify for the program. Forty-seven state investigators began work throughout the state checking eligibility of pension applicants.

At this point, 78,000 applications for assistance had been filed with the state. If all the applicants proved eligible, the individual’s share would be less than three dollars monthly and over a 15 month period. The pensions were also going to be held back for a period of three months.

In brief, the pensions would range from seven to 12 dollars monthly; however, since the pensioners had to wait three months for their first three checks, the first checks would be for $21 to $36. It also stated that inmates of county infirmaries had the right to make application for the assistance and were entitled to the same compensation as any other person possessing the necessary qualifications.

Some of the facts in regard to the pensions were:

1. All persons over 70 years of age weren’t eligible for assistance, and it was under certain conditions such as the following examples:

– the person must be incapacitated from earning a livelihood and without any means of support.

– must be a citizen of the United States.

– must not at the time of application be an inmate of any prison, jail, insane asylum, etc.

2. A person had to reside in the state five years or more within the nine years preceding application for assistance and for one year next preceding the date of application for assistance.

3. Earnings of the applicant which did not exceed $150 in any calendar year would not be considered.

After some time, an investigation was made in regard to the pensions only to find they had been misused. The pension bill, originally enacted to give families without a living income, a pension with a maximum of $30 per month. Its intentions were to give older citizens an income which would allow them to live in some sort of comfort in their older days. Now, instead of older people getting a pension as was originally intended, some received only a dollar or two and up to $22 or $24, but the higher figures were only used in rare cases when the person was confined to his or her bed. At the same time, many administrators received from $5-6,000 per month.

The problem arose when the law passed by misleading the public voters. The voters believed they were creating a tax for the sole purpose of paying old age pensioners. The receipts for the new tax were not earmarked for pensions or other forms of relief.

The whole amount collected which was approximately $2,000,000 a month went to the general fund which one-third of all receipts were automatically taken for the school fund, and not one dollar of the increased revenue was earmarked for old age and relief. Thus, the yearly increase of $22,000,000 in taxes only allowed approximately $10,000,000 to pay old age pensions and for the relief of crippled children.

— researched by Wilbur Bush

Old Age Pensions – Part 1

By 1932, 17 states had adopted an old age pension plan and they claimed it was cheaper in the long run than the poorhouse plan. Now, Missouri voters elected to pass a proposed amendment to the state constitution to permit the legislature to pass a law to provide a pension for the aged. It was also looked on favorably because it would make these seniors feel more worthy than going to the poorhouse.

By 1932, 17 states had adopted an old age pension plan and they claimed it was cheaper in the long run than the poorhouse plan. Now, Missouri voters elected to pass a proposed amendment to the state constitution to permit the legislature to pass a law to provide a pension for the aged. It was also looked on favorably because it would make these seniors feel more worthy than going to the poorhouse.

At this time, there were 10 million unemployed men and it was believed four million of this number had reached the age they wouldn’t be taken back into industry. These men had to have a way to provide for their families. Many elderly people were still married and this new measure would allow them to stay together and keep their self respect. A great lapse of time would pass before the plan would become law.

In 1933, our government came up with a plan to help the elderly by means of old age assistance. One of the bills declared the state and the county would share equally the cost of the pensions. Another bill stated the pensions would be paid from luxury taxes, cigarette taxes, cosmetics, etc.

Most people favored the plan because it provided senior citizens 70 years or older who had an income less than $25 per month with a pension, provided they didn’t own property valued at more than $3,000. Not more than $25 would be allowed in any one case. However, the government claimed they had a shortage of money and it was possible the money might be put off until July 1935. It was suggested our governor appoint a commission of five to study methods of financing the pensions.

In March 1933, the house sent a bill to the Senate concerning the pension and it passed with a vote of 103 to five.

People 70 years or older were to be paid $10 a month. Two of it’s stipulations were:

1. An applicant must have resided continuously in the state for15 years, or a total of 25 years, at least 10 of which must have been continuous immediately receiving the application.

2. Assistance would not be granted to persons if the value of their property exceeded $1,000, if married and not separated from husband and wife, or if the value of the property owned by a husband and wife exceed $1,500.

In 1934, the old age pension was still being discussed. Two positive things that would originate from it was the fact it would give an income to the elderly who where not as productive as they once were, and would remove many workers from the work force and give their jobs to the younger and jobless workers. Mrs. R.B. Harper of Sheridan township suggested a plan that would restore the county to a prosperous financial condition, and had hopes to organize a club in Daviess County. Her husband, a retired physician, Dr. F.E. Townsend, had been responsible for writing the bill. Four of it’s provisions were:

1. They could not engage in any further labor, business, or professional gain.

2. They would take an oath to, and actually spend, within the confines of the United States, the entire amount of their pensions within 30 days of receiving it.

3. They must have the National Government create a revolving fund by levying a general sales tax. The rates were to be just high enough to produce the amount necessary to keep the Old Age Revolving Fund adequate to pay the monthly expenses.

4. Have the act so drawn that such sales tax could only be used for the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Old Age Pensions – Part 3

By 1935, both temporary and permanent relief jobs had been established; however, many of these programs were abused. People driving fancy cars drove to relief quarters to pick up their relief supplies. Many ‘jobless’ people had found jobs, but still remained on the relief rolls; other families had one working member while the rest of the family stayed on relief.

By 1935, both temporary and permanent relief jobs had been established; however, many of these programs were abused. People driving fancy cars drove to relief quarters to pick up their relief supplies. Many ‘jobless’ people had found jobs, but still remained on the relief rolls; other families had one working member while the rest of the family stayed on relief.

Changes had been made in the relief programs. Now, with the exception of the crippled and the handicapped people, recipients were required to work out their relief checks. Men could mix grasshopper poison or do street work. Women could help can the vegetables grown in the relief gardens which could be served in school lunch programs.

People who owned dogs or cars were disqualified from receiving relief funds. It was believed feeding dogs was too expensive and that money should be used to purchase food for their family. Likewise, if they could afford to operate a car, they should be able to provide for themselves.

In Missouri, between Sept. 1, 1932 and Nov. 1, 1934 – a period of two years and two months – more than $244,000,000 was paid for relief by the federal government. This represents about $66 for each person – man, woman, and child – in the state which had a population of 3,700,000.

In the Feb. 2, 1936 issue of the Gallatin North Missourian, it was reported the State Relief Administrator, Wallace Crossley of Jefferson City announced virtually all the state offices would be closed on April 1, 1936, as the state and federal funds were exhausted, thus, the Daviess County relief office would become a thing of the past and no relief given with the exception of orders for surplus relief commodities and the quantity of the surplus commodities distributed to each family would be very limited. Relief applications were no longer to be given orders to grocery stores and dry goods stores. The responsibility would fall on the shoulders of the local government and their relief would also be limited through relief commodities.

In November 1938, the amount Daviess County received for old age assistance had grown to over $7,000. There were 34 families with 77 children on the dependent children’s list. Also in the same year, a new bill was passed by Missouri voters to reduce the age to 65 for people eligible to receive old age assistance.

— researched by Wilbur Bush

Relief Gardens

In 1934, the government established three types of relief gardens in an attempt to provide food for the needy. For some, the gardens provided income as well as providing food.

In 1934, the government established three types of relief gardens in an attempt to provide food for the needy. For some, the gardens provided income as well as providing food.

The three types of gardens started at the local level where community projects were sponsored in return, or for exchange of the garden produce. At the county work projects, laborers were paid hourly wages. At the cooperative projects, people from the relief rolls worked in the gardens and divided the harvest proportionately to the number of hours they worked each week.

Two contrasting views appear about the production of the gardens. One view states there was an abundance of produce, while another view states that due to the drought, the gardens were of poor quality.

In the month of November, nearly 1,200 people from 300 families were given food in Daviess County due to the Federal and State relief aid. The foodstuff was distributed three days per week at three county points namely Gallatin, Jamesport, and Pattonsburg.

Typical portions were ten pounds of sugar, one can of pears, one can of beef broth, one and one-half pounds of canned beef, and one package of rice. Sometimes butter and other foods were given and there was always plenty of flour.

Each of these towns had a four acre tract of land for the relief gardens, and seed was furnished by the government. Members on the relief roll worked in the garden and were given script which was exchanged for food. Men worked an eight hour day and were paid 25˘ per hour. Most of the food was state grown and state purchased, and was to be used in Missouri only. By 1935, the number of relief gardens in Missouri alone were to climb to over 500 acres along with 114,000 state sponsored subsistence home gardens many of the unemployed had planted for their own use.

Missouri had as it’s goals of 6,000,000 cans and more than 3,000 tons to feed the hungry for the 1934 winter season.

The State Garden Program had over 200 canning centers and the size was determined by the amount of food produced for canning in their area. Those living close to the large canning centers were aided in home canning and storage. While the State Garden Program furnished the cans and much of the canning equipment, many counties purchased their own to be used later in permanent community gardens. Many of these canning centers weren’t elaborate buildings.

The Gallatin canning center was located in the City Hall building. Still, it was said to be one of the best canning centers in the state.
The relief office at Braymer in Caldwell County ran short of foodstuff at one time and over 3,000 cans of pears were shipped from the Gallatin exchange. At that time, Gallatin had over 80,000 cans of pears to be given away.

— researched by Wilbur Bush

WPA and the School’s Hot Lunch Program

In the early 1940s, hot lunch programs were edging into the schools. Prior to this, a few commodities such as corn or beans could be heated on pot-bellied stoves and served warm to the students in the winter months. At times a parent would donate a canned product which could also be heated and served. In addition, there were times when the Rainbow Bread Company donated bread.

In the early 1940s, hot lunch programs were edging into the schools. Prior to this, a few commodities such as corn or beans could be heated on pot-bellied stoves and served warm to the students in the winter months. At times a parent would donate a canned product which could also be heated and served. In addition, there were times when the Rainbow Bread Company donated bread.

There were 16 W.P.A. employees who served an average of 2,430 meals each week to the five schools in 1941 in our local area, namely Gallatin, Jamesport, Pattonsburg, Jameson and Carlow.
The program was carried only with local cooperation. Each individual school had to be organized and sponsored within the community. Under the community school lunch program, nutritious farm food products were purchased by the surplus marketing administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the open market. These foods were then made available to schools for use in preparing hot lunches on the part of the children.

Plans had been made in the county for a county wide garden and canning unit that would be located in Gallatin. Several rural and town schools planned to enter this program. It might be well to keep in mind there weren’t any large machines used to do the canning. It was done by the simple method of canning that was done in the home. It was thought that in addition to feeding the children hot lunches, the children would receive more balanced and nutritional meals.

In Daviess County, in the summer of 1941, the ladies did the canning while the men tended the gardens. These gardens were planted by the W.P.A. The produce from the gardens was canned and stored for the winter months. During this summer period, women served from 30 to 40 children and 100 to 150 during the winter months.

Statewide, statistics showed there were 63,235 pupils in 1,926 schools that were served hot lunches during the first month of the school year compared to approximately 30,000 from 690 schools for the previous September. School lunch authorities believed the increases were due to several factors which included improved nutrient, national health defense on the part of the parents, school authorities, civic organizations, and the actual appreciation shown for the hot lunches on the part of the children.

— researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

County’s WPA Starts Off In a Big Way

Daviess county’s WPA work started with a bang in November of 1935, the number working reaching nearly 300 men and 53 women in just the first three days. This injects a $10,000 a month payroll into the local economy. The busiest individual in Daviess county is no less than C.K. Connell, local hardware dealer and WPA supervisor.

Daviess county’s WPA work started with a bang in November of 1935, the number working reaching nearly 300 men and 53 women in just the first three days. This injects a $10,000 a month payroll into the local economy. The busiest individual in Daviess county is no less than C.K. Connell, local hardware dealer and WPA supervisor.

On Monday, Mr. Connell received word from the office of A.R. Hendricks, WPA director in Northwest Missouri, to put every eligible man in the county, as far as possible, to work on the six approved projects. Consequently, workers, crushers, picks and shovels, sewing machines, etc., are going at full steam ahead.

Mr. Connell estimates the monthly payroll in the county will be $10,000. Unskilled laborers can work 130 hours a month and receive in pay $32. Special workers draw $38. Foremen are paid $100, time-keepers $80. A special call for 24 trucks and drivers was made by Mr. Connell Monday, and these drivers, who furnish their own trucks, are paid $1.05 an hour.

The six projects, listed by their WPA number, and location, follow:

Project No. 754 — Improving road, south from No. 13. This project starts at the R.B. Trotter corner, from No. 13, and goes south for approximately 1-˝ miles.

Project No. 757 — Improving road, leading from No. 13, south of Gallatin, a distance of 4,750 feet, nearly a mile, to the W.G. Harlow corner.

Project No. 758 — Improving road through Grand River township. Starts at SK road at the Pogue corner, and goes west to Jameson, approximately six miles, and then west from Jameson to the Mills bridge at the Marion-Grand River township line, a distance of about two miles. This is an eight mile project. Dewey Smith is foreman.

Project No. 787 — Improving road from Lock Springs north to the end of the special road district, a distance of about 2˝ miles.

Project No. 772 — Quarrying, crushing, spreading crushed stone on streets of Gallatin.

Project No. 764 — Improving a road in the northeasterly direction, starting from SK, about a mile north of the Pogue corner, and leads to the Lincoln Township line, a distance of 4.2 miles.

Daviess County was among many other counties to receive WPA funds. The building of the roads above was given first priority for the use of these funds. Workers for the road had their name taken from the employment register at the courthouse. They were given 130 hours a month for working time and they received approximately 25 cents per hour for unskilled labor. Money was allotted to each town on the basis of population. Funds for street improvement ranged from a low of $6,900 for Lock Springs and Jameson to a high of $35,810 for Gallatin.

Money was allotted to town school districts, on the basis of enrollment, for the repairing, repainting, altering and modernizing school buildings. The allotments ranged from a low of approximately $2,000 for Civil Bend, Carlow and Lock Springs, and a high of approximately $9,000 for Gallatin.

The city of Gallatin submitted three requests, namely graveling of streets, extension of water mains, improving Dockery Park along with the building of new bleachers. The proposals would have the WPA pay for all the labor and also for 30% of all materials.

Reprinted from the Gallatin Democrat, November 1935 issues, researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin

Winston Strikes Coal, Boosts Economy

At a time when a multitude of people were jobless, the local economy received a great boost when J.O. Elliot of Cameron struck a 50-inch vein of coal in the west of Winston. The vein was 460 feet in depth, and it was estimated the vein extended several miles in either direction. The coal had a higher heat unit than any coal mined in Missouri, was jet black in color, and very oily.

At a time when a multitude of people were jobless, the local economy received a great boost when J.O. Elliot of Cameron struck a 50-inch vein of coal in the west of Winston. The vein was 460 feet in depth, and it was estimated the vein extended several miles in either direction. The coal had a higher heat unit than any coal mined in Missouri, was jet black in color, and very oily.

New equipment was purchased from the Farmers Mercantile Company of Gallatin, and it was estimated 50 tons could be brought to the surface daily. It was said that when the mine was fully developed , it would be one of the very best found anywhere. It was soon to become a valuable asset to Daviess County and give jobs to many jobless people.

The mining industry was also affected by the depression and the mine was sold at a sheriff’s sale held at the courthouse. The new owners would operate the mine under the name Winston Coal Company.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Government Help Winding Down

The government had spent large sums of money to help the common man during the Great Depression era, but unlike the millions of dollars spent to feed the people in the food lines, it was now making the country a better place to live.

The government had spent large sums of money to help the common man during the Great Depression era, but unlike the millions of dollars spent to feed the people in the food lines, it was now making the country a better place to live.

People were able to hold their heads high and with a smile on their face. Thousands upon thousands of dirt roads became graveled. Farmers began using soil conservation practices. Electricity was slowly becoming a vital part of the American homes and industries.

There are so many things that happened during this era it would take several volumes of books to list all the hardships and all the gains that were made. Many people believe the one thing that marked an end to the Great Depression was World War II.

Researched by Wilbur Bush (2003)

1931 Wheat Harvest Prices Points to Hardships

In mid-summer of 1931, Case & Company established a wheat buying and shipping concern at Jameson. They were buying approximately all the wheat the community had for sale, paying from 30 to 33 cents per bushel. At that time, it was said to be the lowest price ever offered for good wheat in this locality. By the latter part of June, most of the wheat had been shocked and the five or six threshing machines were slowly making their rounds over the county. The estimated local price for threshing wheat was only 6 cents per bushel!

In mid-summer of 1931, Case & Company established a wheat buying and shipping concern at Jameson. They were buying approximately all the wheat the community had for sale, paying from 30 to 33 cents per bushel. At that time, it was said to be the lowest price ever offered for good wheat in this locality. By the latter part of June, most of the wheat had been shocked and the five or six threshing machines were slowly making their rounds over the county. The estimated local price for threshing wheat was only 6 cents per bushel!

With wheat prices so ridiculously low, many farmers stored their grain in their bins, feeling it didn’t pay to sell or ship it. Only three cars of wheat were shipped from Jameson.

The following is an example of the purchasing power a load of wheat would be in 1931. A Callaway County farmer sold a load of grain. Of this grain, it took:

* three bushels to pay his bridge toll

* three bushels for the gas to haul it to market

* one bushel to pay for his dinner

* one bushel to pay for a couple of packages of cigarettes

* six bushels to buy a cheap straw hat

* two bushels to pay for a package of razor blades

* 25 bushels to buy his wife a cheap house dress

* the rest of the load went for overalls and hickory shirts for the children

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Depression Dramatically Alters Farm Ownership

In the 1930s, many farmers had purchased land with some at selling prices of $10 or $12 per acre. With the arrival of the Great Depression era, many farmers couldn’t make their payments. Large loan companies and insurance companies often purchased the repossessed notes from the banks for less than one-fourth of the note’s value. In some communities, these companies might own one-half of the land.

In the 1930s, many farmers had purchased land with some at selling prices of $10 or $12 per acre. With the arrival of the Great Depression era, many farmers couldn’t make their payments. Large loan companies and insurance companies often purchased the repossessed notes from the banks for less than one-fourth of the note’s value. In some communities, these companies might own one-half of the land.

The large companies that purchased the land would usually try to work with the farmers and give them an extension on their loans if they’d tried to pay their loans in past years. In other instances, they’d rent the land to farmers fortunate enough to keep a team of horses and some machinery. Both the farmer and the company received one-half of the crop’s income.

Still, other farmers were left without any money at all. They had to seek other methods to make a living, but this was often difficult because of the slow economy and the fact that farming was the only skill that many knew.

Many farms were sold in order to pay the back taxes. If another person could pay the back taxes, he could often buy the farm.

In spite of all the farm foreclosures, many farm sales around the country were called off due to farmer’s protests. One such incident occurred at Plattsburg, MO, where several hundred farmers from northern Missouri and southern Iowa arrived at the courthouse just prior to the foreclosure sale. As the marshal and three deputies made their way to the courthouse steps, revolvers were taken from two of the deputies. After a few hours, the sale officials decided it would be in the best interest of all concerned if the sale was called off. The authorities were told if they tried to conduct other sales, similar protests would take place.

The riots, the mobs, and the hardships were not limited to Daviess County and Northwest Missouri. For instance, in Julesburg, Colorado, 500 farmers from eight Nebraska and three Colorado counties marched into the county in a military fashion. The result was that they were able to restore $3,000 worth of machinery that had been repossessed by a loan company.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Water a Dire Need During Depression

During the Depression it was very difficult to obtain water, both for the livestock and for household use. Many cisterns and wells that had produced plentifully in the normal years were now dry. For the many, these were their only source of water. Hardships caused by the lack of water are etched into the memories of many who lived during the Depression. Often when a family’s well went dry, the family would take buckets and teakettles and pack water from elsewhere in their family, to a grandparent’s house or others — anyone who could share.

During the Depression it was very difficult to obtain water, both for the livestock and for household use. Many cisterns and wells that had produced plentifully in the normal years were now dry. For the many, these were their only source of water. Hardships caused by the lack of water are etched into the memories of many who lived during the Depression. Often when a family’s well went dry, the family would take buckets and teakettles and pack water from elsewhere in their family, to a grandparent’s house or others — anyone who could share.

Watering the livestock was also difficult. The small ponds and the small creeks and rivers were nothing but hard, cracked ground. Sometimes, a farmer would be lucky enough to have a small watering hole in the riverbeds where the bawling cattle could be driven to be watered. Some farmers used their teams to pull sleds and wagons loaded with barrels to the water holes to obtain their water. Often, farmers would band together and form relay lines to pass buckets back and forth.

In 1934, the small dairy herds in Daviess County were reduced in number or eliminated all together due to the heat and lack of pasturage and water. One example of this occurred in 1934 when 26 carloads of cattle were shipped out of the county in a 3-week period.

Daviess County and surrounding counties were among the multitude of counties still affected by the severe depression’s heat and the lack of water as of 1934. Due to being located by the Grand River, there had always been plenty of water for Gallatin. Now, with the mounting temperatures and the lack of water, no water was to be taken out of town to be used elsewhere. Up to June 1934, June had the highest demand for water anyone could remember.

In a few areas, it was reported cattle were dying in the fields due to a lack of water. In other isolated localities, where their water resources had dried up, water for human consumption was carted into towns in tanks. In the small communities such as Gallatin, people were encouraged to help themselves by building ponds, damming creek beds and draws in order to conserve any water that did fall.

As an emergency measure to provide forage for livestock in these dry times, the relief administration provided large quantities of soybeans for seeding purposes. Now, up to this time (June 1934) the beans had not been planted because the lack of moisture prevented proper soil preparation. The farmers feared they would be unable to raise forage for their livestock before winter set in.

The water shortage was so critical, geologists had been hired to advise people in the Gallatin area where new wells should be dug. But due to the drought some of these areas were diminishing in regard to water. Some areas reported springs, which had never gone dry in memory of the people, were now dry.

Among other towns that had made restrictions in regard to the water shortage were:

1. Marceline – each house, business, and residential had been allotted so much water per day, and violators of the rule were subject to fine.

2. Hamilton – no water was to be hauled from town, no lawns were to be watered, no sidewalks or streets were to be washed.

3. Bethany – residents were prohibited from using unnecessary water including car washing and sprinkling. Fines were imposed for violations to the rules in the amounts of $10 for the first violation, $100 for the second violation as well as their water cut off.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

History

1910-1920

[Thomas Edison demonstrates "talkie" movies. Woodrow Wilson elected president. Titanic sinks. By 1915 Longshoreman, ship workers, road workers strike. A year later, Montana’s Jeannette Rankin is the first U.S. congresswoman. The U.S. enters World War I in 1917. The war ends in armistice in 1918 and the world flu is a pandemic. The first atom is "split" in 1919.]

1910-1920

[Thomas Edison demonstrates “talkie” movies. Woodrow Wilson elected president. Titanic sinks. By 1915 Longshoreman, ship workers, road workers strike. A year later, Montana’s Jeannette Rankin is the first U.S. congresswoman. The U.S. enters World War I in 1917. The war ends in armistice in 1918 and the world flu is a pandemic. The first atom is “split” in 1919.]

[The movement to ban liquor grew from the temperance movement out West, where alcoholism and lawlessness were rampant after the Civil War and Gold Rush days.

Daviess County women formed their own temperance movement, formed to combine religious fervor with the fight against liquor.}

….Service was held at the Methodist church last Sunday night, under the direction of the Community Interest League. It was a temperance service of marked interest and zeal…(July 3, 1913)

Made a search for bootleggers

A little company of Gallatin women who were standing on the sidewalk near the Andrews racket store Saturday afternoon during the festivities of the stock show noticed that quite a number of men, young and old, were going up the stairs leading to the Odd Fellows’ hall and the upper rooms of the Hamilton buildings adjoining. The actions of the men convinced the women that a drinking joint was be operated upstairs, and they decided to interfere with the procession of burning thirst.

The women lined up across the doorway leading upstairs, and after two or three appeals form men to let them through the line, which they turned down, they noticed that no further effort was being made to get in….they discovered that the procession was gaining admission to the upper refreshment chamber by a back stairway.

…the women made an investigation of the upstairs. But if there had been any booze up there, the boys had either drank it all or had sneaked it out the back way, because the crusaders found neither bootleggers or booze.

The raid created quite a little excitement, and has put a real scare into the local booze dispensers. And now is a mighty good time for the law violators of this town to quit business. (Oct. 1, 1914)

City Improvements: Some classy lights

Supt. Penn Love, of the Gallatin Light and Water Works, is having installed several new Tunsten street lights around the square and a block each way from the square. A cross arm of two lights is put on each post, and they give the Gallatin business district the appearance of a white way. The lights are being put up by individual order and subscription, the city furnishing the current. It is a very cheerful improvement. (June 12, 1913)

Improvements at Chautauqua

Another big improvement is being made in Dockery Park — the home of the Daviess County Chautauqua. The contract has been let for the installation of modern toilets on the grounds…This will make the grounds the best appointed of any in Northwest Missouri, except those of Trenton, where modern toilets were installed this year…

Agriculture: To use ‘modern farm horse’

Floyd Tuggle, one of Daviess county’s most progressive farmers, last week purchased of Hart, Parr & Co., of Charles City, Iowa, and all steel gas tractor, “the modern farm horse,” the first in Daviess county for use on his farm and the roads. It can be used for plowing, pulling stumps, or in fact for anything on that farm that requires power to pull it, and is a great road machine.

The tractor is a 40 brake horse power and a 27 draw bar horse power. It will run about five miles per hour on high speed and more than two miles an hour on low speed. (Aug. 14, 1913)

Blooded birds on dress parade

Step into the Alexander building on the west side of the square — you’ll hear music — not piano or violin, but rooster and hen music, made by blooded birds from everywhere. It is the big Daviess County Poultry Show in full force….There you will find the best the poultry industry produces housed in pretty little coops furnished by the state, a great big tank with ducks swimming in perfectly cold water, pleasing little tags on each coop to tell you what kind of chickens, an elaborate state exhibit in the northeast corner of the room, incubators, courteous attendants who will tell you all about it — in fact, you will find everything right up to snuff…

The entry books…showed…that more than 40 persons had made entries with approximately 400 birds in the show.

Car maker Henry Ford introduced his Model T automobile in 1908. In the summer of 1913, the Maxwell was the popular vehicle in Gallatin.

Maxwell a record maker

What we term a real auto record was made in a new Maxwell 35-4…J. T. Cope returned from Kansas City Tuesday night in a new 1913 beauty…made the run of 106 miles, registered by the speedometer, and used only five gallons of gasoline, an average of 21 miles to the gallon…Mr. Cope is the fifth one to get a Maxwell, 24-4, in this section — Dr. M. A. Smith, Seth Macy, Mark Tolen and E. Matt Foley, being the other 34-4 owners. (Aug. 14, 1913)

From coal to silver: Rich find of silver ore

…the ore find on the McCrary farm is in the south part of Sheridan township and on Marrowbone creek. He says the ore vein is two feet thick, easily accessible, and that two feet of dirt underneath the vein is rich in silver….A Kansas City company has taken a lease on the McCrary farm and other adjoining lands. (Jan. 1, 1914)

Rural schools to consolidate

The schools included in the consolidation are Jameson, Laswell, Brown, Beck, Brushy Creek and Grant. This will be the first consolidated school district in Daviess county…The Coffey district, including Coffey, McClary, Burnes, Feurt, Freeport, Shady Grove and a small part of the Everly district, will vote on the question of consolidation next Monday…The Blake district, including the Goodbar, McClung, Mann, Prairie Valley and Fairview schools, will vote March 18.

Girls college for Gallatin

Dr. E.W. Dow of West Medway, Mass.,….purchased the Grand River Academy property form William Jewell College…Dr. Dow will conduct and exclusively girls’ college, with a strong religious atmosphere about the institution, but non-sectarian. (April 23, 1914)

Gravest crisis in history confront American railways

The European war has suddenly brought American railroads face to face with the gravest crisis in their history. With greatly diminished receipts, and ever increasing cost of operation their condition was precarious enough before &– but now, with the financial markets of England, Germany, France, Austria, Belgium and Holland indefinitely closed to them — it means that they must henceforth finance all their requirements within the U.S. Not only that, but in their frenzy for ready gold these countries are frantically seeking to dispose of big blocks of the nearly five billion dollars’ worth of American railroad securities that they now hold. It was this “dumping” process which forced the closing of the New York Stock Exchange some weeks ago. When it will be able to open its doors again, no man dares prophesy — but when it dies it will unquestionably tax our resources as never before not only to maintain the integrity of our railroad securities, but all other classes of industrial investments as well.

Women’s suffrage: Smashed the mashers

…The young men… followed the Sheriff’s daughter and a young girl friend, Miss Fay Elmore, home from the Gem, annoying them by fresh remarks. When informed of the matter Sheriff Blair came back up town with the girls and finding the young men in the office of the Windsor hotel did a little “mashing” of his own account. He knocked one of the fresh ones down twice and gave him a severe pummeling, but while so engaged the other masher, who had been the more persistent in his advances with the young ladies, rushed out the door and saved himself by fast foot work.

Both parties were husky young fellows but they did not exhibit any desire to tackle Mr. Blair.

The Windsor Hotel once stood at the corner of Jackson and Market Streets at the northwest corner of the Gallatin business square. This post card is produced by C.E. Wheelock & Co., of Peoria, IL. (date unknown)

Is led astray

A Missouri farmer away from home and Josephine. The farmer was in Dalhart, Texas. He was a railroad official, there to help the agriculture commissioner run the farms in the 14 states along the Rock Island.

I must tell you all somethin’ about my trip down here. Cottrell told me to go it along till he could come from the land show at Chicago. While I ain’t so overly religious and set in my ways, I’m pretty dern kearful around home where I go of a evening’. Josephine — that’s my wife — is most generally with me after dark. I reckon they is a reason. I got a cow the home place that I named Josephine, because she is so stubborn. Josephine had a bull calf that was allus breakin’ through the fence, a gittin’ into the clover. I seen Josephine — that’s my cow — many a time stand in front of the weak spot in the fence and keep that thar caff from goin’ through.

Just like Josephine — that’s my wife — many a time has she stood between me and temptation by pullin’ me past one of them cheap theaturs. But just as soon as Josephine — that’s my cow — had turned her back, that caff would be through the fence. And as soon as I got out of sight of Josephine — that’s my wife — I got into one of them cheap theaturs.

…and there was a leetle gal a-dancin’ till I thought her feet would break off. I felt sorry fur her right on the jump, and I thought of how the poor gal must suffer in them thin duds on such a chilly night…Well, by and by the show was over and I do say I was a deal troubled by conscience if I done right or not in seein’ such goings on. When I got on my train the conductor says they got nothin’ left but uppers…I clumb in and was soon snorin’ I drempt about that consarned show all night. About 8:30 I heard the porter callin’ me, sayin’: “What’s the mattah wif you all?” I riz up and there I was with my feet twisted around the brass rod, a trying to de a slack wire stunt and the hull car up and gigglin’ their fool heads off. …That’s what a old fool like me gets fur breakin through the barbwire fence. — Thomas Jefferson Putnam (Jan. 26, 1910)

Researched by Wilbur Bush

What Was Done With Too Many Cattle

One of the ways the government dealt with the overabundance of cattle during the Depression was to give the farmers a chance to cull their herds and ship the surplus cattle to areas where the drought was less severe.

Farmers took advantage of the offer to sell cattle to the packing houses. Daviess County had been allotted $50,000 to buy the farmer’s cattle. The cattle were bringing from $15 to $20 per head. In a 2-week period, 14 carloads were shipped, and it was estimated another 10 cars would be shipped the following week.

One of the ways the government dealt with the overabundance of cattle during the Depression was to give the farmers a chance to cull their herds and ship the surplus cattle to areas where the drought was less severe.

Farmers took advantage of the offer to sell cattle to the packing houses. Daviess County had been allotted $50,000 to buy the farmer’s cattle. The cattle were bringing from $15 to $20 per head. In a 2-week period, 14 carloads were shipped, and it was estimated another 10 cars would be shipped the following week.

The allotted money was doled out in such massive quantities that the money was soon depleted; thus, when many farmers took their cattle to the markets to sell them, they were turned down.

With the large flux of cattle sold on the market, the community kitchen’s roles were converted into meat canneries where thousands of cattle were processed. Both the farmer and the relief community received 50% of the canned products. In turn, the relief community distributed their share to the needy families for the following winter.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

Daviess Countians Try Raising Tobacco

In 1930, Missouri farmers grew over 5,000 acres of tobacco. A few people of Daviess County had hopes of tobacco becoming a stable local crop. Two men especially had hopes of achieving this goal. They planted a 3-acre plot of tobacco. By September, their prospects for a tobacco crop looked very favorable.

In 1930, Missouri farmers grew over 5,000 acres of tobacco. A few people of Daviess County had hopes of tobacco becoming a stable local crop. Two men especially had hopes of achieving this goal. They planted a 3-acre plot of tobacco. By September, their prospects for a tobacco crop looked very favorable.

Tobacco experts who visited the county reported the crop as being of excellent quality. The two men had an acre and one-half of the crop stored in their barns for curing. It was cut September 10, and would remain in the barns until the middle of November when it would be graded and made ready for market which would open at Weston around December 10. A man would be sent from Weston to grade the farmer’s product.

While the crop was still in the field, a veteran tobacco raiser had inspected and estimated the three acres would yield a total of 1,500 pounds. The estimated value would be 15 cents per pound making the total selling price $750.

From the Jameson Gem, 1931 “Missouri Tobacco Crop.” Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

No! No! Not Another Tax Part 2

As the sales tax brought both pros and cons to the depression’s victims, the principal outcry against the sales tax came from the retail merchants who, in absence of the exact knowledge of the subject, assumed they would have to absorb the tax, that it could not be passed on to the consumer. When the first day the tax went into effect, merchants announced new prices with the two cent sales tax added and had no difficulty on passing on the tax burden.

As the sales tax brought both pros and cons to the depression’s victims, the principal outcry against the sales tax came from the retail merchants who, in absence of the exact knowledge of the subject, assumed they would have to absorb the tax, that it could not be passed on to the consumer. When the first day the tax went into effect, merchants announced new prices with the two cent sales tax added and had no difficulty on passing on the tax burden.

People realized it was not a tax on earnings, but a tax on spending. They also realized the measure was needed in order to balance the state’s budget.

The business men were to keep accurate books reflecting their gross income, preserving all records relating to, and being subject to inspection at all times.

Deductions allowed from gross sales were as follows:

1. Sale price of goods taken in exchange for new goods.

2. Credit sales by retailers and wholesalers may be reported as collected.

3. Taxes collected on gasoline and tobacco.

4. Gross receipts from sale of agricultural products when sold in the original state or preparation for sale.

5. Sale of fertilizer, seeds, boxes and crates used in preparing agricultural products for market.

6. Sales of schoolbooks when sold under State contract.

7. Sale of cotton, seed cotton, lint, and baled cotton.

8. Amounts recycled from life insurance policies and annuity contracts up to the amount of premiums paid thereon.

9. $1,200 each year, to be deducted from total loss income and on gross proceeds of sale.

A feature of the sales tax is that it makes practically every person engaged in business, a tax collector serving for the State without compensation, keeping a record and making monthly returns without even being allowed postage on the remittance.

All businesses collecting more than ten dollars a month must make monthly reports. Smaller concerns report quarterly.

Some classes of manufacturing concerns are also included: soft drink establishments, being required to pay one percent, and cotton seed oil mills, and ice factories one-quarter of one percent.

The danger in the sales tax was, as in any other form of taxation is the likelihood it will encourage tax spenders to new extravagances. If adopted merely as an added burden upon the tax paying public, it will fail as its purpose. If adopted by states as a means of reducing the burdensome taxes which fall on owners of real estate, it is to be highly commended.

Researched by Wilbur Bush

The Beginning of the Sales Tax

June 7, 1933"I think it is as certain as anything in the future can be that the United States will adopt a general sales tax, as a means of raising national revenue. I am sure that will come about as soon as the majority of the people understand what is meant by a sales tax, and when they have had an opportunity to observe the operation of the sales tax in the state of Mississippi."

June 7, 1933"I think it is as certain as anything in the future can be that the United States will adopt a general sales tax, as a means of raising national revenue. I am sure that will come about as soon as the majority of the people understand what is meant by a sales tax, and when they have had an opportunity to observe the operation of the sales tax in the state of Mississippi."

In the Depression years, our government was doling out far more money than it was taking in. Being in the deficit, our national, our state, and our local governments had to do something to bring in more revenue.

A man by the name of Caleb Johnson came up with a plan that had worked in other states such as Mississippi. His proposal was to create a state-wide sales tax which would affect Daviess County as well as any adjoining counties. A quotation shown above states his view of the future. He used Mississippi as the basis of his argument.

It seemed as though the main objection to the tax came about because of the misunderstandings it generated. The theory behind the sales tax was not so much that everybody would pay it, as much as it was everyone knew he/she was paying it. It was said there was no tax of any kind imaginable that was not paid in the long run, by the consumer. By using the new sales tax, everyone would pay proportionally as to what he purchased whether it was a twenty-five pound of flour, a new rocking chair, or five gallon of gasoline.

As long as there was a large number of people who thought they did not pay taxes, and the government’s revenues was derived from only the rich, there was a large group of individuals who tried to get money from the government on the theory that it came out of someone else’s pocket.

The best argument in favor of the new ta was that everyone pay proportionally two cents out of every dollar they spent. The man who bought nothing, paid no taxes.

Researched by Wilbur Bush, Gallatin (2003)

1950-1960

It’s the fabulous fifties. World War II has ended and the young soldiers have returned home. Peacetime growth and expansion is everywhere in America during the decade. People are buying up what they couldn’t get during the war.

It’s the fabulous fifties. World War II has ended and the young soldiers have returned home. Peacetime growth and expansion is everywhere in America during the decade. People are buying up what they couldn’t get during the war.

—Business is good in Gallatin at the beginning of the decade. Chamber of commerce secretary Roy A. Dean said the electrical appliance sales are a good barometer of business. "I was talking to a man the other day in that business, " Dean explain. "And he was selling electric refrigerators like mad to farms. Now that the farmer has REA and can get electricity to his home, he is using it." (June 22, 1950)

000The county continued to thrive on small businesses at the end of the decade. Daviess County has a total of 162 business enterprises employing one or more. (Nov. 30, 58) The county chalks up bigger job gains than most counties in the U.S. In a period of five years, it went from 831 to 1009. (Jan. 1, 59)

The big bug-a-boo during the decade was automation and the fear that machines would put people out of work. Such was not the case. In the long run, machines created more jobs than they destroyed.

The Lambert Cap Factory’s payroll supplements the local economy. (4/10/52) —The agricultural community gets a boost with the dedication of the Gallatin Salebarn (12/7/50) and construction of the MFA Elevator. (9/2/54)— The Gallatin Truck and Tractor firm was bought by the Sullenger brothers, W. Glenn and Wilbur. (12/21/50) 000The Longwood Automatic Stove Company is now in production in its new building located on the Critten farm about five miles east of Gallatin. At present there are about eight men working at the various Critten enterprises including the stove factory, custom combining and earth moving. (Oct. 16, 58)

 

 

Gallatin’s projects include a sewer and disposal plant and a whiteway system. —Approximately 50 city blocks are to be paved with blacktop coating. (June 22, 1950) xxxExpenditure of more than $100,000 has been planned for construction and maintenance of farm-to-market roads. In addition 76 miles of the county’s three major highways are scheduled for major improvements during the next ten years. (3-27-52) 000A water treatment plant was under construction by 1958 after voters approved a $65,000 bond issue. (Sept. 25, 1958)

***Other modern improvements include a dial telephone service which become a reality in Daviess County for the first time in history when the new Green Hills Telephone Corporation exchange at Lock Spring went into operation. That area had been without phone service of any kind since 1947. (Dec. 2, 54)

Increased incomes of Daviess County people during the latter part of the 1940s made possible the strong local market in the 50s.

\Figures released showed retail sales in the county during 1948 aggregated $7.2 million, an increase of 324 percent over the $1.7 million in 1939…Wholesale in the county reached a total of $3 million in 1948 as compared with $1 million in 1939. The service trades included in the census of business recorded receipts totaling $244,000 in 1948 compared with $34,000 in 1939. (May 18, 1950)

 

The importance of the automobile to the local economy is indicated by the fact that automotive sales account for 33 percent of the entire retail business of the county. Residents of Daviess County are spending at the rate of $2,415,000 a year for automotive equipment and supplies. Of the total, filling stations are garnering $730,000 per year. (June 16, 1955)

The railroads do not fare so well.

***Mr. Harrison’s editorial reads: Cussin’ the railroads seems to be a popular pastime. But do we know what we’re doing? Last year the railroads paid Daviess County over $70,000 in taxes to help keep the schools going and support other county expenses. The truckers, for which we build wide extra-thick concrete pavement so they can move freight at a lower rate to put the railroads out of business, paid not a single dime and never have. (9/9/54)

000And the Winston Coal Mine, once a busy place, does not get a bid when the property was placed up for sale for taxes. The Winston Coal Co. was formed in 1936. The output reached 200 tons daily for a time. Fifty men were once employed there. But attempts to operate the mine profitably eventually failed. (Sept. 4, 1958)

The country had just started to recover from World War II, when suddenly the Korean Conflict broke out.

–Until this week there hadn’t been much talk around the square about the Korean war. But, it’s different now—since the word got back that the Reds were shooting American troops after the Yanks had surrendered. (July 13, 1950)

—Harold Terry and Leo Wheeler are the first two Daviess Countians to enlist since the Korean outbreak. Both were in service during the last war. (July 13, 1950)

–Lt. Nevin McCartney of Jameson is wounded. The first area man to become a battle casualty in the far east. (Aug. 10, 1950)

–No ration controls were imposed at first on behalf of the war, but taxes were expected to rise. (July 20, 1950)

xxxEventually a farm scrap drive is on in Daviess County, only now it is under the auspices of the Agricultural Mobilization Committee. (10-25-51)

xxxPresident Truman approved production of the hydrogen bomb in 1950.

The health and vigor of our domestic economy today and for the past six years is not only a notable achievement of the Truman Administration, but it is our great bulwark against Communistic aggression both at home and abroad….(June 21, 1951-ed)

The USSR became a major enemy in the Cold War. Senator Joseph McCarthy saw Communists infiltration everywhere. Americans were feeling a sense of national anxiety.

xxxA Daviess County woman fears that criticism of the Red Cross blood program heard in Gallatin on the recent bloodmobile day and since on the streets of Pattonsburg and Coffey might be the result of Communist propaganda. (Jan. 3, 1952) The woman had heard rumors that the blood was not getting to the boys and the Red Cross was making money on the deal. The Democrat assured that the rumor was false and stated, "It’s red blood we need, not red words." (1/3/52)

—"Gallatin should get ready for the A-Bomb, said Capt. Dalton Davis, U.S. naval medical officer, in a speech to the Rotarians. He warned that the Communists were scattered in large and dangerous numbers throughout this nation, in places where they could do a lot of harm. (July 27, 1950)

Daviess County figures prominently in the evacuation plan for KC in the event of an atomic attack there. According to the data, Daviess County would be expected to provide for 27,000, persons, of whom 15,000 would remain. This is four thousand more than the county’s population. (4-14-55)

000The state created a new survival plan in 1958. Daviess County is within easy fallout distance of two major target areas–St. Joe and Kansas City. Large public buildings would likely be used for hospitals. Billeting in private homes would be the primary method of housing evacuees."Residents should bear one thing in mind–people fleeing from an atomic attack must be cared for even if nothing else at the time works right. It is a burden of the atomic age and we’d just as well learn to live with it." (Aug. 21, 58)

People build bomb shelters in their back yard and worry about surviving.

Guest editorial….You didn’t die in the blast, and you escaped fatal dosage of radioactivity. You have only to face the primitive problems of hunger, cold and disease in a world that played 19th century diplomacy with 20th century weapons. Worthwhile to start digging? (March 24, 1955-ed)

 

\American education underwent a dramatic overhaul in the 50s. Integration began. Parents are wondering Why Johnny Can’t Read. Locally, school’s crack down on lax parents.

A father was given 30 days in jail for his son’s truancy. (April 13, 1950)

Rural schools in Daviess County undergo a crisis.

xxxDrinking water at Daviess County’s rural schools for the most part is unfit for human consumption, a survey conducted by Dr. Floyd E. Nelson, county health physician, has shown. School grounds were also surveyed and reports showed that all had unsanitary outdoor toilet facilities. The school grounds in several instances were overrun with snakes and rodents, Nelson said.(3/27/52)

School districts are about to be revamped. The big yellow school bus is pushing the little red schoolhouse off the American landscape. Larger buildings offer better facilities at lower cost per pupil.

xxxSchool district reorganization was proposed. There would be six districts, centered around the five larger towns in the county, Gallatin, Pattonsburg, Jamesport, Winston and Jameson. (June 21, 1951)

A Parent Teachers Association was formed. (April, 54…see Dec. 30, 54)

000By 1958 Gallatin’s new elementary building was complete and ready for the bell. (Aug. 7, 1958)

Problems with education persist through the decades.

***In thousands of communities both public and private schools are overcrowded with youngsters, staffed by underpaid teachers, and are in disrepair. While our population has grown and the people prosper the school systems of the nation have not kept pace with the advancement and have constantly lost ground. (Nov. 11, 1954)

xxxThere are fewer farms in Daviess County but they are worth a lot more.

Daviess County dropped 135 farms from 1945 to 1950, but the remaining farms increased in value from $46.58 to $75.17 per acre, according to an agricultural census released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Other statistics:

In 1945 there were 2,243 farms embracing 336,544 acres for an average of 150 acres to the farm, valued at an average of $46.58 an acre. In 1950 there were 2,108 farms, embracing 336,231 acres, an average farm of 159.5 acres valued at an average of $75.17 an acre.

Farms with telephones showed a gain of 13 in the five year period from 1, 253 in 1945 to 1,264 in 1950. Electricity on the farms showed a gain of from 443 in 1935 to 1,537 in 1950. The number of motor trucks on farms also gained considerably from 290 in 1945 to 607 in 1950. Tractors gained from 795 in 1945 to 1,350 in 1950. A total of 336 farms were powered entirely by tractor.

In 1950 there were 169 field-crop farms, other than vegetable and fruit-and-nut, 164 cash grain, five other field crop, 84 dairy farms, 50 poultry farms, 1,230 livestock farms other than dairy and poultry and 253 general farms. The horse and mule population dropped from 5, 943 in 1945 to 3,650 in 1950. Cattle and calves increased from 34,626 in 1945 to 37,058 in 1950. Hogs in number jumped from 39,220 in 1945 to 59,661 in 1950.

Daviess County farmers travel an average distance of five miles to their nearest trading center. (6/21/51)

000The County Swine Industry Development Committee was elected to set up a program to stimulate improved production to meet the demands of the consumer. "Jack Sprat could eat no fat." Consumers are demanding lean, red muscling in their pork. (Oct. 9-16, 58)

000The Daviess county chapter of the N.F.O. conducted a membership drive in behalf of the organizations "Collective Bargaining Plan for Agriculture" by brining in their "big gun", Oren Lee Staley, national N.F.O. president. (1/15/59)

 

xxxFarm competition is the latest fad and local farmers are among the best.

Lewis Cox and Richard Porter, both of Gallatin, rode in one-two with top honors in the first annual Missouri Mechanical Corn Picking Contest held at the Robert Macy farm. Mr. Cox went on to win the national championship. (10/18/51) 000Clarence Clark; won the state plowing match in the contour division. A crowd of over 6,000 was on hand. (Aug. 7, 1958) 000Daviess County’s skilled tractor operators’ contest was held Aug. 11 at the Sale Barn. (Aug. 7, 58)

xxxJ.N. Ward and Wilbur Lehr were Daviess County’s entrants in the state plow event. They matched plowing skills with rivals from 19 other counties at the George Montgomery farm, north of Pattonsburg. The national plowing match was also held on the Montgomery farm. The national event drew a crowd estimated at 50,000. (8/16/51)

Who would have guessed that a local farmer could make a fashion statement?

xxxLewis Cox, Gallatin’s corn picking champ, is receiving nationwide publicity this week in the form of 8,500 posters, printed in four colors, which will be distributed over the entire country to dealers who sell Key work clothing. It seems that Lewis has been wearing this brand of work clothing for years. Lewis is shown on the posters in a full length portrait clutching a big trophy in each arm. You can see one of these posters in Crawford’s window. (5/29/52)

 

xxxTelevision was the dominant media for entertainment and news. Nearly everybody has a TV in their home by now. A television set given at the Corn Picking contest went to Douard Green, who already had one. (10/25/51)

000Fred Wilcox, owner of the Wilcox Propane Gas Co. installed two-way radios in three company trucks. The calls put over the radio are similar to those heard on M Squad and other detective programs on television. (July 24, 58)

Daviess Countians will begin paying higher postal rates. The rate on letters is four cents an ounce. (July 21, 1958)

Sitcoms like The Honeymooners, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and I Love Lucy portrayed ideal families living ideal lives.

The real world fell short.

Labor trouble is brewing in Jamesport…

***The Teamsters union out of Chillicothe signed up employees of the concrete vault factory owned by A. V. Spillman. When Mr. Spillman learned of this, he discharged the employees. This is the third attempt at union organization in Daviess County. Unsuccessful efforts have been made at the Snyder Quarries and at the Pattonsburg cap factory. (9/9/54) The placing of two bombs in Jamesport, in front of the Home Exchange Bank and in the yard of its president, A V. Spillman, adds tension to the labor dispute. (9/16/54)

Nature is anything but ideal.

***The heat wave of this week may go on record as the most damaging on record…Most areas in the county went into the fourth straight week without rain. Hog and poultry losses have been the worst on record. Farmers have lost up to 10,000 chickens and 200 hogs. All records for the consumption of power and water were broken in Gallatin. (July 15, 1954)

Advice is offered if you get caught in a tornado.

xxxIf caught in a frame house, the southwest corner of the basement offers the best protection. If you have no basement–fall flat on your face and wish you hadn’t done all those mean little things. (May 29, 1952)

Fire leveled the popcorn plant at Jameson. (Nov. 25, 1954)…Fire destroyed the Phillips Broiler Plant at Coffey destroying the property and killing 18, 000 chickens. (12/30/54)

And flood…And flood control…

–Pattonsburg civic leaders meeting with representatives of the U.S army engineers office at Kansas City made it clear that if the Pattonsburg reservoir was built and the town had to be moved, the new site would have to be on highway and railroad facilities or it wouldn’t suit…They didn’t want to move any further than necessary. (Aug. 10. 1950)

xxxThe second mass meeting in two weeks at Pattonsburg to organize opposition to the Pick-Sloan plan of big flood-control reservoirs in the Grand River basin will be held at Pattonsburg city hall. More than 200 persons attended.(8/23/51)

Diseases…

Smallpox and whooping cough immunizations are offered in the schools county-wide…(10/28/54) but polio is still claiming victims.

–The first case of infantile paralysis in the county this year is that of Peggy Sue Vyrostek, 6-year-old daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Tom Vyrostek, northwest of Gallatin. Peggy is in Missouri Methodist Hospital in St. Joseph, where her condition is reported as satisfactory. (10-12-50)

xxxThe Daviess County chapter of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis spent $2,354.15 to assist a total of five polio patients last year. (1/10/52)

Then Dr. Jonas Salk developed a vaccine and Daviess County residents, along with the rest of the nation, shared the thrill of the announcement that the Salk polio vaccine is safe, effective and potent and indications are that the vaccine program in the county might get underway "within next week." (April 14, 1955)

 

 

GI BILL…

***ten years since bill enacted by congress…This has proved the most successful adult education program adopted in this or any other country…(11/25/54)

***Some 12 Mennonite families have purchased farms and are residing the Jamesport area. (8/5/54)

 

***Gone With The Wind is playing at the local theatres. It costs between 15 to 60 cents, depending on the theatre. (Oct. 14, 54…page 5)

 

000In many parts of the country, married women in droves are quitting the home to take jobs in industry–but not so in Daviess County even with its two cap factories. Locally, only 22.6 percent of all women above the age of 14 hold outside jobs. This compares with 28.9 percent in the United States. The actual figures were 978 in the local labor force out of a total of 4,315 women over the age of 14. (12/4/58)

Researched by Wilbur Bush